Medical Mycology Journal
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53 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
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教育シリーズ:Dermatomycosis
教育シリーズ:Basic mycology
総説
  • Minoru Shinozaki, Yoichiro Okubo, Daisuke Sasai, Haruo Nakayama, Takao ...
    53 巻 (2012) 4 号 p. 241-245
    公開日: 2012/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    Notwithstanding the advantages of providing definitive diagnoses, the identification of fungi based on histopathological determination can be difficult and may lead to a pit of diagnoses. Therefore, the establishment of an auxiliary diagnostic method for use in routine pathological laboratories is desirable and should improve the above situation. Our previous studies have shown the superiority of in situ hybridization (ISH) for the detection of pathogenic fungi in histological specimens. This review focuses on the usefulness of ISH in the detection and identification of pathogenic fungi from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections, and provides an overview of ISH for the diagnosis of fungal infection and retrospective autopsy analysis using molecular procedures. Based on the above, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes were shown to be superior in terms of the detection of target fungi and useful since histopathological diagnosis has the potential danger of being incorrect in the identification of fungi. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize that histopathological diagnosis in combination with molecular methods such as ISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of FFPE samples should enhance the accuracy of identification in relation to fungi.
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  • 石井 恵子, 川上 和義
    53 巻 (2012) 4 号 p. 247-254
    公開日: 2012/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    Cryptococcus neoformans はエイズや悪性血液疾患などの易感染性宿主に重篤な脳髄膜炎を発症させるが, 発症メカニズムは明確になっていない. C. neoformans に対する感染防御の主体は Th1型の細胞性免疫であり, そのきっかけとなるパターン認識受容体による病原微生物の構成分子の認識が重要な役割を持っていると推測される. 筆者らはマウスの系で, クリプトコックスDNA が Toll 様受容体9依存的に免疫応答を誘導することを明らかにし, この誘導が既知のCpGモチーフを持つ細菌 DNA とは異なる様式で起こる可能性を示した. また, Cタイプレクチン受容体からのシグナルを伝えるアダプタータンパク質CARD9 を欠失したマウスでは免疫応答が低下し, C. neoformans に感受性になることから, C. neoformans に対する感染防御に何らかの Cタイプレクチンが関与することが示唆された. 本稿では C. neoformans 感染におけるパターン認識と感染防御反応について, 自験例を交えて概説する.
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原著
  • 髙橋 美貴, 井上 重治, 羽山 和美, 二宮 健太郎, 安部 茂
    53 巻 (2012) 4 号 p. 255-261
    公開日: 2012/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    われわれは, 4種の飽和脂肪酸 (カプロン酸 C6, カプリル酸 C8, カプリン酸 C10, ランリン酸 C12) について, 2.5% ウシ胎児血清含有 RPMI1640培地 (基礎培地) を用いてカンジダ発育に対する作用を検討した. さらに抗真菌活性の強かったカプリル酸, カプリン酸についてマウス口腔カンジダ症に及ぼす作用を調べた. 4種の飽和脂肪酸のin vitro での Candida albicans の増殖に及ぼす効果を調べた結果, カプリル酸, カプリン酸, およびラウリン酸を終濃度0.78μg / ml 以上で添加すると, その菌糸形発育が抑制された. 口腔カンジダ症マウスモデルを作製し, カプリル酸, カプリン酸を1回につき50 μl (3% 濃度) を C. albicans 接種3時間後, 24時間後および27時間後に, 3回口腔内に投与したところ, 舌の症状が改善され, 病理標本でも菌の定着が少なくなることが示唆された. カプリン酸においてはより少量で効果を示し, その改善も著しいものであった. カプリン酸が少量の投与でマウス口腔カンジダ症に効果を示すことから, 口腔カンジダ症の予防および患者への補完代替医療としての使用が期待される.
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  • Sumiko Ishizaki, Mizuki Sawada, Reiko Suzaki, Ken Kobayashi, Junya Nin ...
    53 巻 (2012) 4 号 p. 263-266
    公開日: 2012/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    A 63-year-old healthy female patient presented with well defined itchy erythematous lesions on the area of her eyebrows. Her eyebrows had been tattooed two months before her visit to us. The lesions had previously been treated by application of steroid ointment and anti-histamine and steroid tablets by mouth without success. We suspected the lesions to be contact dermatitis caused by some metal element contained in the dye used for tattooing. Treatment was continued for two weeks, but the lesions spread to her cheeks and forehead. No fungal element was found from the lesions by direct microscopy at this stage. The patch-testing to 20 metal substances on her skin showed no allergic reaction. After one more week of treatment, we reexamined the scale taken from the lesions by direct microscopy, and fungal elements were found at that time. Microsporum (M.) gypseum was isolated from the scale taken from the lesions. The lesions cleared after treatment of 11 weeks' oral intake of itraconazole 100mg daily.
    It was found that the patient was accustomed to sleep with her dog, a Chihuahua. On examination by a veterinarian, no skin lesions were found on the dog. We speculate that the paws of the dog might have carried soil contaminated by M. gypseum, a geophilic fungus, to the area of her eyebrows which had minor trauma after being tattooed.
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  • Nobuyoshi Hirose, Masahiro Tamura, Morio Suganami, Yumi Ogawa, Masatar ...
    53 巻 (2012) 4 号 p. 267-271
    公開日: 2012/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    Background : T. tonsurans infection is spreading among combat sport athletes in Japan, and preventive measures are necessary.
    Methods : A questionnaire survey and hairbrush-culture tests were conducted over a 4-year period on university judo athletes from about 50 university teams affiliated with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo. Culture-positive individuals were given specific treatment recommendations based on culture results and were advised to seek treatment at a medical clinic. Culture-positive individuals were re-tested at 3 months post-treatment.
    Results : Approximately 65% of participants reported a history of T. tonsurans infection. The incidence of hairbrush culture-positive individuals overall gradually decreased from 11.3% (academic year 2008) to 5.4% (2011). Each year the incoming freshmen had the highest infection rate of the four academic classes. Beginning in 2009 the infection rates decreased sharply among those who had participated in the survey the previous year, and the decreases continued the following year (s) until graduation. Among culture-positive individuals, the incidence of asymptomatic carriers increased each year, from 86% in 2008 to 98% in 2011. The culture-negative conversion rate was 86% overall for those undergoing treatment.
    Conclusion : Preventive measures against T. tonsurans infection in the University Judo Federation of Tokyo were successful in increasing awareness of the disease, lowering the incidence of infection, and detecting asymptomatic carriers who require treatment.
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