We conducted a retrospective cohort study on clinical and mycological features of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in psychiatric inpatients in Japan. Of the 317 inpatients (152 with schizophrenia and 165 with depression), 46.1% had tinea pedis and 23.7% had tinea unguium. Of those with tinea pedis, 48.6% also had tinea unguium. The most common clinical type of tinea pedis was the combination of interdigital type and hyperkeratotic type. The mean clinical score of tinea pedis was 5.9, and that of tinea unguium based on the Scoring Clinical Index for Onychomycosis (SCIO) was 15.8. The main causative species of tinea pedis were Trichophyton rubrum (68.4%) and T. mentagrophytes (26.3%). No statistically significant differences were observed in incidence rates of tinea pedis or tinea unguium between men and women or between patients with schizophrenia and those with depression. As for incidence rates by age, patients with depression showed a single peak for tinea pedis and / or tinea unguium in their 50's, while patients with schizophrenia exhibited twin peaks for tinea pedis and / or tinea unguium in their 50's and 70's. Both tinea pedis and tinea unguium tended to become more severe in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Our study suggests that schizophrenia and depression, like diabetes mellitus and HIV infections, should be regarded as risk factors for tinea pedis and tinea unguium.
Filamentous fungi were detected in the blood culture of a one-year-old boy after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. The patient was suspected to have aspergillosis and received micafungin. Fungi were isolated on potato dextrose agar medium and incubated at 37℃ for 2-5 days. Grayish, cottony colonies formed. A slide culture showed a spherical sporangium at the tips of the sporangiophores. The fungus could have been a zygomycete. The zygomycete was isolated from three blood cultures. The antifungal drug was changed from micafungin to liposomal amphotericin B, which resulted in an improvement in the patient's symptoms. Growth was observed at 37℃, but not 42℃ in a growth temperature test. Gene sequence analysis identified the fungus as Mucor velutinosus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time M. velutinosus has been detected in Japan, and this case is very rare. Zygomycetes are known to be pathogens that cause fungal infections in immunodeficient patients such as those with leukemia. They are difficult to identify by culture and are identified at autopsy in many cases. Therefore, culture examinations should be performed for immunodeficient patients with the consideration of zygomycetes.