Scedosporium prolificans (S. prolificans) is a type of mold, which rarely affects immunocompromised people. We treated a 71-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M5a) with low-dose cytarabine, acralubicin, and filgrastim as the induction therapy. On day 7 after the initiation of chemotherapy, she became febrile and agranulocytic, and developed anal pain ; therefore, we discontinued the chemotherapy on day 8. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, micafungin, and then liposomal amphotericin B were ineffective. The serum concentration of β-D-glucan was 525 pg/mL. She died of multiple organ failure on day 17. S. prolificans was detected from the blood culture on day 13. Physicians should consider Scedosporium spp. infection when principal antifungal agents are ineffective and fungal infection is strongly suspected.