Medical Mycology Journal
Online ISSN : 2186-165X
Print ISSN : 2185-6486
ISSN-L : 2185-6486
Current issue
Displaying 1-7 of 7 articles from this issue
Original Articles
  • Kiminobu Takeda, Taketoshi Futatsuya, Kazushi Anzawa, Takashi Mochizuk ...
    2022 Volume 63 Issue 4 Pages 87-90
    Published: October 31, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    We report the case of a 77-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with psoriasis vulgaris at another hospital at age 33 and treated with various therapies since then. At 61 years old, she was diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis with phalangitis, swelling of both hands, and sacroiliac arthritis, and was treated with oral immunotherapy. At age 76, treatment with a humanized monoclonal antibody to interleukin-17A (ixekizumab) was started due to increased pain associated with her hand inflammation. After ten months of this treatment, she visited our hospital with the complaint of tongue pain and white fungi on the tongue surface. Direct KOH examination of the fungi showed pseudomycelia and spores, and fungal culture (CHROMagar®Candida) showed green and dark green wet colonies. Sequencing of the D1D2 region of ribosomal RNA gene of the nuclear DNA of fungi from the colony identified Candida dubliniensis. She was treated with amphotericin B gargle (Fungizone®syrup) for two weeks, and the lesion improved. Since then, the patient has been treated with ixekizumab with no recurrence of oral candidiasis.
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  • Naobumi Tochigi, Sota Sadamoto, Shinji Oura, Yasuko Kurose, Yoshitsugu ...
    2022 Volume 63 Issue 4 Pages 91-97
    Published: October 31, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Background: Histopathological identification is usually required since the sensitivity of fungal culture is not sufficient for accurate diagnosis. On the other hand, pathological diagnosis, especially of molds, often is not accurate, even when performed by an experienced pathologist. This is particularly true in the differentiation between mucormycosis and aspergillosis, which have different drugs of choice and medical management. The diseases can easily become severe in a short period of time in accordance with the severity of the underlying disease or predisposing factors. Therefore, correct diagnosis is extremely important and should be entrusted to the pathologist.
    Aim: To develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based automated histological diagnostic system for mold infection to support the diagnosis by general pathologists, especially for distinguishing between Aspergillus and Mucorales.
    Method: We used two indicators for the diagnostic system; namely, the angle of independent hyphae and tortuosity of each hypha.
    Results and conclusion: We collected 147 and 67 image samples respectively from standard cases of aspergillosis and mucormycosis. All the images were successfully analyzed by automatic recognition of the two indicators. The independent areas divided by the threshold curve generated by two-dimensional plots of the data clearly include the test data obtained from the cases of Aspergillus and Mucorales. The present study demonstrates the usefulness of our newly developed AI-based diagnostic system. Further investigation is required for its practical use.
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  • Dai Hirose, Kohei Watanabe, Ryo Hagiuda, Ryuri Tachikawa, Takashi Kami ...
    2022 Volume 63 Issue 4 Pages 99-107
    Published: October 31, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The taxon Aspergillus section Fumigati comprises several causative agents of aspergillosis. Here, the distribution of Aspergillus sect. Fumigati in outdoor environments of Izu and Ogasawara Islands was investigated. Different strains were isolated from soil samples collected from 68 sites on 9 islands (Izu-oshima, Toshima, Shikinejima, Kozushima, Miyakejima, Hachijojima, Mukojima, Chichijima, and Hahajima), including different landscapes, and identified using morphological characteristics and calmodulin (CaM) sequences. Seven Aspergillus sect. Fumigati species were identified. The occurrence frequency of Aspergillus fumigatus was higher in forest sites on the islands, except for Ogasawara Islands, whereas that of species other than A. fumigatus was higher in bare land and grassland sites on all islands. The occurrence frequency of A. fumigatus was more than 50% on islands between Izu-oshima and Toshima, decreased on islands between Shikinejima and Hachijojima, and was zero on Ogasawara Islands. Considering other Aspergillus species, Aspergillus felis showed high occurrence frequency on islands between Izu-oshima and Shikinejima, Aspergillus pseudoviridinutans on islands between Kozushima and Hachijojima, and Aspergillus udagawae on Ogasawara Islands. At two study sites (grassland and forest sites), the soil was sampled throughout the year to evaluate whether the occurrence frequency of each fungal species was affected by sampling season. At the grassland site, A. pseudoviridinutans was isolated at more than 90% frequency, regardless of the sampling season. A. fumigatus occurrence frequency at the forest site ranged from 0% to 60% and greatly varied among sampling seasons. Thus, differences in island location and landscape affected the distribution of Aspergillus sect. Fumigati.
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Reviews
  • Fumiya Ebihara, Takumi Maruyama, Ken Kikuchi, Toshimi Kimura, Yukihiro ...
    2022 Volume 63 Issue 4 Pages 109-117
    Published: October 31, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Similar to antimicrobial stewardship, the concept of antifungal stewardship (AFS) has also received attention. AFS outcomes include reduced healthcare costs, avoidance of adverse events, and increased implementation of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Several processes and outcome measures have recently been reported for implementing AFS and evaluating its effectiveness in healthcare institutions. This review focuses on our AFS efforts to standardize treatment using a template for pharmacist-led patient intervention for candidemia and to evaluate TDM dosage adequacy rates for voriconazole. The importance of “task shifting”, in which the physician's work is transferred or shared with pharmacists and other co-medical staff to alleviate concentration of physician workload, has also been advocated. This review focuses on how pharmacists are involved in AFS.
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  • Current Status, Future Perspectives, and Proposal for Transfer of Six Candida Species to the Genus Nakaseomyces
    Masako Takashima, Takashi Sugita
    2022 Volume 63 Issue 4 Pages 119-132
    Published: October 31, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    This review describes the changes in yeast species names in the previous decade. Several yeast species have been reclassified to accommodate the “One fungus=One name” (1F=1N) principle of the Code. As the names of medically important yeasts have also been reviewed and revised, details of the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, and Trichosporon are described in Section 3, along with the history of name changes. Since the phylogenetic positions of Candida species in several clades have not been clarified, revision of this species has not been completed. Among the species that remain unrevised despite their importance in the medical field, we propose the transfer of six Candida species to be reclassified in the Nakaseomyces clade, including Nakaseomyces glabratus and Nakaseomyces nivalensis.
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  • Ko Sato, Kazuyoshi Kawakami
    2022 Volume 63 Issue 4 Pages 133-138
    Published: October 31, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Cryptococcus spp. are yeast-type opportunistic fungal pathogens with thick polysaccharide capsules that infect the lungs via airborne routes and frequently cause fatal meningoencephalitis. The cellular immune mechanism plays a central role in controlling cryptococcal infection and is critically regulated by Th1-Th2 immune balance. Pathogens that have invaded the host are recognized by innate immune cells, and appropriate immune responses are initiated. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized by macrophages and dendritic cells via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which trigger the inflammatory responses as the first line of host defense. Some PRRs, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), are involved in the recognition of cryptococcal components, such as glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), mannoproteins (MPs), and nucleic acids. However, some cryptococcal cell components suppress the host immune response. This review will highlight the cryptococcal components involved in host immune responses. Future research is expected to promote the understanding of the mechanism of host immune response to Cryptococcus, which will lead to the development of new vaccines and therapies for cryptococcal infection.
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Short Report
  • Mai Watanabe, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Takasuke Ogawa, Yumi Ogawa, Etsuko ...
    2022 Volume 63 Issue 4 Pages 139-142
    Published: October 31, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Two pediatric cases of Microsporum canis infection that occurred in a cat breeder family and the isolation of dermatophytes from their 166 breeding cats are reported. The patients were a 16-month-old girl and her 26-month-old sister who both had tinea capitis. Their family consisted of six members: the sisters, their great-grandmother, grandmother, grandfather, and mother. Except for the two sisters, the family had no history of skin lesions. The grandmother had been a cat breeder for 20 years. We tested the cats using the hairbrush technique, and 56 of the 158 cats (35%) tested were positive for M. canis. In particular, cultures performed from 4 cats developed M. canis colonies that grew densely from all spikes on the hairbrush. On the basis of observations of the cultures, cutaneous infection was suspected when five or more colonies grew on a single plate medium (9 cats), whereas growth of fewer colonies was thought to suggest saprophytic colonization on cat hair. M. canis is known to be highly transmittable among cats, but 65% of the cats investigated remained negative. It was thus considered possible to prevent further spread of infection by practicing basic infection control and improving the environment.
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