This paper focuses on the works of Luis Althusser, especially his early works such as Reading Capital and For Marx. Althusser is known as structural Marxist but his works contain various elements including psychoanalysis, epistemology, and linguistics. I reevaluate his early works from the viewpoints of mass communication study. What is most important in Althusser's work is that it shows the way of empirical analysis of"discourse". Therefore, to reevaluate Althusser is to make clear his way of analysing discourse, "symptom reading". Nowadays, the concept of discourse draws much attention from sociologists in various fields. Some structuralists and post-structuralists have explored a variety of techniques for the analysis of discourse. Althusser's method is the most important one among them. According to Tim Dant, sociological analysis of knowledge and ideology is possible through the empirical analysis of discourse. He explains the meaning of discourse in his Knowledge, Ideology and Discourse as follows. By discourse, he means"the material content of utterances exchanged in social contexts that are imbued with meaning by the intention of utterers and treated as meaningful by other participants."And"the meaning is a property of the structural feature."In the field of mass communication study, Althusser is known for his theory of ideology which is explored in his latter works. The Cultural Studies Group is deeply effected by his theory of ideology. Althusser viewed the ideology as a representation of the imaginary relationship of individuals with the real condition of their existence. However, in his latter works, discourse is explained only in terms of reproduction of class society. On the contrary, structuralists think that discourse has its inherent power which bind human recognition and act. Althusser's early works are examples which exposes such power in the realm of human recognition. And his contribution to mass media study is made clear when we understand his way of exposing such power through his discourse analysis.
Although a large number of studies have been made on Luhmann's social system theory and Habermas' Communicative social theory, little is known about the importance of these theories in terms of informatization and post-modern society. The purpose of this paper is to show the neccesity of a communicative approach in the conceptual analysis of post-modern society and to further develop the concept of communication. In order to advance this purpose, Foucault's historical analysis of discourse and power and Melucci's social movement theory provide helpful points. Their arguments throw new light on"vulnerability"in communication subject. Habermas, with his concept of communication action, creates a theoretical approach that is able to recognize the beginnings of an answer to the basic problem since within its framework, the structures of social domination can be explained as the result of processes of communicative agreement that underlie an internal claim to the fulfillment of inter subjective freedom that serves as the standard for a reflexive"critique of power."In the history of Marxism, communicative understanding is treated systematically as the paradigm of the"social."But his foundation is not sufficient for grounding a communication-theoretic concept of society. The process of formation and institutionalization of social norms is not abstractly conceived as a moral development in learning that the human species realizes as a whole, but as a process of will-formation that takes place between some groups in the form of struggle over the basis of validity of moral norms. I introduce Michel Foucault's theory of power as a conflict model. Foucault finds a productively new disclosure on the sphere of social interaction and conflict. It is very important that he conceives of social system, in general, as networks of social power in which knowledge formations assume the special function of augmenting power. Discourse is a system of social knowledge that owes its genesis to the strategic requirements of an established order of power even as they may in turn effectively act upon a given order of power. His point of view compensates a weak point of Habermas' theory. There is one further question that we must not ignore in Habermas' communication theory. His analysis of the process of communicative understanding is quite unsatisfactory, therefore the"force of negation"in his theory is decisively weak. In this sense, Melucci's theory about new social movement provides helpful points. Melucci insists that"to communicate thus signifies the need to depend on what is common in order to discover and affirm difference, the possibility of choice introduces contingency and risk into relationships and makes them a field of emotional commitment and self-reflection."There is an important suggestion here, if I interpret the author correctly, that communication subjects must not deny the ambivalence of social relationships in post-industrial society. It means"vulnerability"in subjects. In my opinion, vulnerability is one of the most important factors to develop communication theory following Habermas' model.
In this paper, the author describes the development of French newspaper laws after the enactment of 1881's law on the liberty of the press (loi de 29 juillet 1881, sur la liberte de la presse), from the viewpoint of mutual relations between two ideologies, which are"statism"(etatisme) and"liberalism"(liberalisme). This paper is made up of two chapters. In chapter I, the author explains the development of newspaper laws and the theories of regulation of newspapers from July 1881 to August 1944. To put it concretely, the following three important elements are included in this period. First, the"liberal"interpretation of the liberty of the newspaper is oriented by 1881's law, and then, it is established in the newspaper's golden age (age d'or). Second, the intimate relations between newspaper and government, which are symbolized by the enterprisers-politicians (entrepreneurs-hommes d'Etat), arise from the"liberal"conditions of newspaper. Third, Leon Blum (1872-1950), a leader of French socialist party (S.F.I.O.) of these days, presents a unique theory of"statism"based on the criticism of"liberalism."In chapter II, the author explains the development of newspaper laws and the theories of regulation of newspapers from August 1944 to the present. To be concrete, the following three elements characterize this period. First, the regulation of the liberty of the newspaper based on"statism"is provided by 1944's order (ordonnance du 26 aout 1944). Second, the revival of"liberalism"arises from 1947's law (loi du 27 fevrier 1947) and 1954's law (loi du 5 aout 1954). Third, the restoration of"statism"is produced by 1984's law (loi du 23 octobre 1984). The 1984's law is confirmed by Council of the Constitution (Conseil constitutionnel) according to the decision of 10th and 11th October 1984. Major findings of this paper are as follows. 1)"Statism"(etatisme) is based not only on the phenomenon of concentration of newspapers but also on the pursuit of"fair press"in the broad sense. 2)"Statism"(etatisme) depends upon the distinction between the liberty of the newspaper (liberte de la presse) as the liberty for the corporation and the liberty of the opinion (liberte d'opinion) as the liberty for the natural person.
This paper considers the relationship between globalization and everyday communication practices in the age of high modernity. Drawing on both sociological works by A. Giddens and ethnographic studies conducted in the U.K. and the U.S., the paper suggests that an understanding of the concept of globalization provides a basis for a more sensitive awareness of the dynamics of time-space redefinition that emerges from the consumption of Japanese media by Japanese female expatriates in the context of their day-to-day life. First, the concept of globalization has a primary importance in the studies of communication and society. This is underscored by the fact that the concept defined by Giddens has temporal and spatial connotations and their rearrangements in global set up. Second, time-space distanciation or the redefinition of time-space should be explored not in an abstract level but by investigating actual communication practices and everyday routines in specific communities. In this sense, recent development of cognitive ethnography serves as an appropriate method for the study. Some examples observed in the communication practices of Japanese housewives living in London and San Diego provide substantial evidence for it. Finally, further considerations of the ethnic identities, as well as the globalizing tendencies of social life, of these Japanese expatriates should be made. It is because these factors have a potential power to reproduce communication practices which are continuously routinized in spite of all the cost resulting from long-distance communication activities.
The main goal of this paper is to connect perlocutionary act with sociocultural factor in Japan. It is well known that Japanese often use indirect expressions and mind to mind communication strategies (Ishin-Denshin). These methods of communication are called perlocutionary act in the speech-act theory. The followings are the conclusions: (1) perlocutionary act relates to face-threatening act shown in the theory of politeness (P. Brown & S. Levinson, 1987). It is considered that perlocutionary act happens when a Japanese feels strongly face threatened. (2) small-collectivism (C. Nakane) in Japanese society influences perlocutionary act. According to Nakane, the Japanese people are characterized by closed-minded and having competitive spirit. These traits are reflected in face threatening act. (3) the awareness of the Japanese people of face-threatening acts can be attributed to the weak concept of"self"in Japanese society. The Japanese concept of"self"is more of being a member of a social group, rather than"self"as an individual. This strong concept of"self"as a member of a larger group gives rise to strong tension in Japanese way of communication.
Indonesia is known as a diversified country because of its multi-ethnicity and that its government proceeds with economic development by positive introduction of foreign capital. Under this situation, the mass media have a great role for national integration through a unified system of broadcasting of the national TV (TVRI). I will describe how the state organizes national information flow by a content analysis of TV news program of TVRI. The primary role of TV broadcasting in Indonesia is to symbolize the state motto and goals;"Unity in Diversity"or"They are many, They are one"as the motto, the Panchasila or five principles as state philosophy and national economic development as the goal. The government is regulating production of TV news program exclusively to TVRI, and commercial broadcasts are required to telecast the news programs. Therefore, people can only watch programs for getting national and international news controlled by the state except for the rich who can watch foreign TV programs like CNN through satellite networks. So, we regard TVRI's news program as very important in constructing the national information environment. In order to make a study of the structure of TVRI's news program, I tried to analyze its contents. The programs which I selected as objects of analysis are Berita Nasional or National News and Dunia dalam Berita or World News, and both of these are the most popular news programs and telecast in all TV channels as mentioned above. I compared issues of national news with those of foreign news, and analyzed type of scene or topic and frequency of VIP's presence in national news. (Because some national news are also broadcast in Dunia dalam Berita, I had to regroup all news items from two programs into two categories: national news and foreign news.) Results of analysis showed that national news are inclined toward issues on development or economy. By the contrast, foreign news stories are more political. National news tended to adopt ceremonial scene. In half of national news items broadcast, VIP were present. I tried to consider the functions of TV news in Indonesia on the basis of the results of analysis. These are functions enhancing national prestige, mobilizing people into development, introducing the cultural diversity of Indonesia, and other functions without governmental implications. As a hypothetical conclusion, this study points out that there is a political tendency to be more open to foreign information but to toughly control information flow of domestic situation as shown in the structure of TV news.
As an attempt at demonstrative and historical research on the recipients of advertising, this paper analyzes the remarks of those (general readers of a newspaper) who took part in a round-table talk on advertisements for the"Searching Section"of Kokoku Geppo (an advertising monthly report edited and published by the Advertising Division, Asahi Shimbun-sha). The three reasons why this"Searching Section"was selected as the subject of the study is that the opinions of the participants in the round-table talk before newspaper advertisements are recorded with only few modifications. Furthermore, the selection of the participants was made on a random sampling basis. Thirdly, the section has been in existence since the mid-1960s in almost the same form. The findings of the analysis are: ・As advertising has become an everyday affair during the period from covering the 1960s and 70s advertisements became a given, or thing that existed as a prior condition in everyday life, to recipients of them. Advertisements developed into something with the recipients had not been prepared. ・Next, the recipients' attitude to advertising shifted from the stage where they, as consumers, confronted the advertisers in the relation of"sellers and buyers, "to the stage where they, from the viewpoint of enjoyers and critics, exposed themselves to advertisements as a kind of entertainment. ・Then, advertisements as entertainment went through the period of"a boom in the creative aspects of advertisement"when advertisements competed with each other in workmanship. The interest of the recipients become a factor in the advertisers' marketing and advertising strategy. Advertisers has responded to, or rather accelerated, these changes in the recipients' attitude toward advertising. The social background of these changes was that there was a sharp increase in information-oriented and knowledgeable recipients. In other words, it seems that there were changes in merchandise, enhancing the presence of advertiser's influence, and changes in the concept of the recipients' self and what"everyday life"is. What underlies such changes in the remarks of the participants in the round-table talk for the "Searching section"is a shift in the recipients' viewpoint on advertisements - a change from the viewpoint of consumers to that of enjoyers, finally to that of marketers, as if they were advertisers. The causes and results of this shift have brought about the present situation that advertising and advertisers have become ubiquitous, that the co-presence of"advertisers and recipients"has expanded and become an everyday affair, and that it has become normal for people to be recipients of advertisements.
The Implementation of mass communication policy should be considered in terms of two basic categories of positive and negative policy. Positive mass communication policy consists of government efforts to actively disseminate information about state policy, or in other words, propaganda. Negative mass communication policy consists, on the other hand, of efforts to control the mass media such as newspapers, magazines, and radio. Means of control includes legal regulation, censorship, "internal guidance"(naimen shido), and the control of resources. Most researches to date on wartime Japanese mass communication policy have concentrated on the latter, negative type of policy. During the period from 1936 to 1945, the Japanese government and military published a weekly national policy pamphlet, Shuho (The Weekly Report), with the aim of unifying the Japanese people for war mobilization. This essay seeks to examine Japanese wartime propaganda and mobilization efforts through analysis of the political context of Shuho, its distribution policy, circulation, readership, and editorial direction. After the Manchurian Incident in 1931, the Japanese government and military leadership developed a"domestic ideological strategy"(kokunai shiso sen) for the purpose of mobilizing the people for war through the eradication of so-called foreign thought, in particular liberalism and socialism. As a first step in this strategy, an information committee was created informally in 1932 and began immediately to enact a"plan for the guidance of domestic public opinion"(tainai yoron shido keikaku) which targetted public opinion leaders, particularly those considered to be democrat or liberal. In 1934, the Army Ministry further articulated state policy on public thought in a famous pamphlet entitled The True Meaning of National Defense and a Proposal for its Strengthening. The Information Committee was formalized as a cabinet body in 1936, and it began publishing Shuho as part of its positive policy on shaping domestic thought. During this period, privately published pamphlets which offered prompt analysis of rapidly changing international and domestic affairs had become extremely popular among intellectuals. The decision to publish Shuho was reached after the government had conducted a minute examination of the pamphlets. Shuho was designed to replicate them in form, editorial direction, distribution, and especially readership. As a result of the appearance of Shuho, along with the increasing severity of controls on the press, the number of privately published pamphlets began to decline gradually. Shuho was initially edited for an intellectual readership, but the success of newspaper and radio advertisements and of the development and use of official distribution routes to private vendors led to increased sales to a broader, more middlebrow audience. By the end of World War II, Shuho had achieved circulation of two million and had become a part of the Japanese people's daily life, thereby fulfilling its role in the dissemination of government and military propaganda.
The purpose of this paper is to propose and emphasis on the subjectivity of audience to mass media. First, the author assumes two functional models of relationships between"Bewustseins-Industrie"(consciousness industry) and"audience"in mass communication process. Using the functional analysis, we could come up with two basic concepts. One is"transmission and persuasion, "the other is"ritual and aesthetics."The former is based on"effects and influences research, "the latter on "uses and gratifications research"and"reception theory."From these analyses, we could define these models as follows: (1) Transmissive and persuasive communication. In the traditional studies, the subjectivity of"Bewustseins-Industrie"had been emphasized in the sender-oriented model. It seems that the subjectivity of the audience is a consequence of one's"zweckrationales Handeln"(rational purpose act). (2) Ritual and aesthetic communication. Nowadays, in the receiver-oriented studies, it seems that the subjectivity of the audience is a consequence of one's"Wertrationales Handeln"(rational value). Secondly, the author uses the analogy of the reception theory of mass media with literature to support the subjectivity of the audience. As a result of this analogy, the following findings can be supposed: (1) In"reader-oriented criticism, "it seems that the audience is the subjective reader. (2) We can describe that the non-subjective audience is an"ideal receiver, "and the subjective audience is a"relative receiver."Hense, the author characterizes a new aspect of"the contemporary mass audience"as"reader."
1. Background. Following the enforcement of the civil code in January 1987, the mass media and the judicial circles in China were challenged by a widespread"epidemic of prosecution of journalists."2. The study of compensation for mental damages. As to civil code No.120 focusing on compensation for mental damages, it has been a subject of a study. The focuses were: 1) The rationality of the principle of financial reparation under capitalist modern law; 2) The relation between human character and money; 3) The validity of traditional moral values in China. 3. Prerequisites for defamation. 1) The act of the wrongdoer is illegal. The common view has it that libel depicts facts whereas insult has nothing to do with fact. But judicial precedents show the correlation between insult and fact. Illegality is further divided into"formal illegality"and"substantial illegality."Defamation cannot be constituted out of formal illegality alone. Moreover, the notion of"low"in the concept of illegality includes moral norms. But the limitation of morality is not clear. It is said that the demonstration of the truth of the major facts is enough to constitute the"proof of truth"which refutes the illegality. However, the criteria for judgment of what is"major"has to wait for the accumulation of precedents to be spelled out clearly. 2) The wrongdoer has committed a mistake. Error is divided into direct intention, indirect intention, and misadventure. The main stream understanding in theory and justice is that only direct intention applies to criminal cases and the others to civil cases. In case of"wrong belief, "an exemption clause for"unexpectable"cases is stated clearly in the criminal code. In the last few years a theory which judges based on"the reliability of information source"is being proposed. But in the court, the attitudes toward wrong belief are polarized. 3) There is a fact of defamation. Honor is defined as"social evaluation, "but there are considerable arguments. One of which is that the"sense of honor"is an object of legal protection. Concerning the problem of how the decline in social evaluation relates to the social status of the victim, there is a divergence between the opinion that protection of people of higher status should be strengthened and the opinion which holds the American"theory of actual malice."There are lots of cases of involving the model of a novel is a plaintiff or not. In such cases, the verdict usually relies on"the reader's awareness"as conclusive factor. 4) There is a casual relationship between the act of the wrongdoer and the damage to the victim."Common knowledge"is often referred to as the reason for the refutation of casual relationship. The most typical cases are issues on reprint. However, both theory and the justice denies exemption.