It has been said that journalism in Japan was totally reconstructed, even reborn after World War II. It settled its standpoint firmly on the basis of a new reason-d'etre or values called"pacifism"and"democracy"whether rooted in the New Constitution or not. This article tries to examine this well-known belief among journalists, focusing on the framework of journalism, especially on its"pacifism"and"democracy"as expressed in the editorials of newspapers. Finally, it will be pointed out that the framework of journalism on this new value, above all"pacifism", is not an absolute value for journalists as is stated in Article 9 of the Constitution, but a political alternative.
Since 1995 Japanese television has contributed to the intensification of parcifism in Japan by annually broadcasting remembrance programs on the war casualties, A-bomb experience, and the commemoration of the end of World War II for a period of several weeks leading up to August 6, No-Mare-Hiroshimas' day, and August 15. The Lack of resolve to verify the history of the war, taking into consideration our assaults on other Asian peoples, makes it necessary to reexamine and define these painful events as a part of the broader suffering inflicted on the Asian peoples in order to overcome the mistakes which stand in the way of Japan's recognition of this experience./
This study aims to make a comparison between American journalism and Japanese journalism regarding the Battle of Okinawa during World War II. First, it examines what kind of news both countries published during the battle, the only one involving citizens in Japan proper. In addition, the study refers to American psychological warfare techniques whereby American airplanes and shells dropped tens of millions of leaflets from the air. Also, it depicts the details of publication of a placatory bulletin, 'Uruma Shimpo'by the American forces. Lastly, the study refers to the self-fashioning process of Okinawan journalism that values peace consciousness.
"Nanpo"is the term used during the war era to describe South-east Asia. Extensive coverage of the region by the Japanese press began in September 1940 after the Japanese army invaded and occupied the French colony of Indo-China. The event sparked a five year long"Nanpo"news reporting craze. It was not untill the late 1960s, when the Japanese economy advanced rapidly Southward that the Japanese media would again to start to pay attention to South-east Asia. This study seeks to discuss and compare the changes in the stance of Japanese press reports on South-east Asia since 1940. A study of war correspondents' news reports on"Nanpo", as well as the lessons and experiences of post-war journalism will also be made.
Regarding the historical evolution of Japanese mass media industries after defeat in World War II, the half century since the year 1945 may be divided into four periods as follows: the first is from 1945 to the end of the 1950s; the second includes all of the 1960s and the first three years of the 1970s up until the Oil Crisis; the third spans the long stagnation which continued to the middle of the 1980s, and finally the fourth, which came with the bubble economy, continues after its bursting, showing drastic changes in mass media industries in the face of the multimedia age. Each of these periods has given many different characteristics to the substructure of Japanese newspapers and brordcasting, Also, the quality of Japanese jounalism has been influenced profoundly by these industrial changes.
This paper intend to study the historical changes of the roles of Japanease housewives mainly in war-time Japan through an analysis of the woman's magzine"Shufu-No-Tomo"(Housewive's Friend) and consider its present-day implication for the study of gender roles. In particular, I want to analyze the influence of that magazine's heated campaign on the shaping of war-time female roles. The reason why I focused on the period of World War II is that I think that period was a turning point for female roles in Japan and the"Shufu-No-Tomo"played and importhat part.
In various ways, contextual information (for example, headlines, titles, photographs, and captions) affects its following text. The effect of contextual information on its following text is called the"orgnizer effect". The'organizer effect'is classified into three types: the learning effect; the manipulating and leading effect, and the selective effect. In this paper, the author will report four original experiments to verify the three organizer effects of headlines and photographs. It was not possible to show all three effects very clearly, but the possibility of this kind of effect was established.
The purposes of this paper are to examine the discursive production process of the press by Stuart Hall's'encoding /decoding'model, and to exmine the opportunities for workers in the mass media referring to Michio Inaba's studies in mass communication industries. Every media-worker has the ability to express theirself, but it seems to be suppressed at present. To break the status quo, and to give full play to their ability, they must change their viewpoint. This paper aims to help media-workers recognize and realize their opportunities.
In this article I pay attention to the new style of writing / thinking which is generated by using electronic writing tools, "Japanese word processor"and"Outline processors". They can speed up the process of writing and make clear what people want to express. The former polishes up ideas, the latter is useful to think and construct them, and they have the potential to generate new types of literacy. But they also have the tendeny to homogenize the style of writing, and narrow the breadth of thinking. In conclusion, they influence the style of writing in two ways simultaneously: both extending some of our human senses while reducing others.
The purpose of this study is to exmine the news source mix, the patterns of news source combination, and news souce'completeness'in the coverage of the brain death and transplantation issue. The'completeness'of source is defined as the degree to which a single type of source is quoted rather than combined with other types. 376 stories (Asahi Shimbun 192, Mainichi Shimbun 184) which contain the word"brain death"and"transplantation"were analyzed. In accordance with the result of many previous studies, this study found a lack of balance in the mix of news sources. the majority of information was from medical professionals and goverment-affiliated officials. This study also found that most stories relied on one type of news source and that the ofiicial sources had relatively high source completeness.
In order to explain why imported television programs rarely get high audience ratings in Japan, a questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain, among other things, Japanese attitudes toward foreign television programs. The survey results clearly indicated that Japanese are on the whole quite favorably disposed toward foreign program imports. Therefore, it was concluded that the majar reason for the failure of foreign television programs to flourish in Japan is the strong competition offered by domestically-produced programs, not xenophobic attitudes of Japanese viewers. Some of the characteristics distinguishing television and films are also considered in explaining the popularity of foreign films in contrast to relatively low rated foreign television programs. Finally, an optimistic look is taken at the future of foreign television programming in Japan.