"Post 1989" meant in Europe, the breakdown of the structure of the cold war and the end of communist and socialist systems. The same term meant quite differently in East Asia, however. In June of 1989, the Tiananmen massacre took place in China. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the scholars of contemporary international relations had to ask themselves why they could not predict the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The paper surveys the theoretical development in the research of political communications brought about by the "post 1989" political situation. This development is not unrelated to the reexamination of theories in the field of international relations. The methodological development in the studies of political communications paved a way for new paradigms.
This article reviews major theories and empirical findings regarding the international flows of information and culture. Specifically, it covers "gravity-integration theories, " and media/cultural imperialism theories as "grand theories, " and empirical research on the patterns and determinant factors of international flows of (news) information and (mass and quality) cultures as "middle-range theories." After reviewing many theories and introducing his own survey results, the author concludes as follows: If we see the patters of international flows of information and culture from the center-periphery viewpoint, Japan seems to belong to the "center" as far as the flows of news and popular culture are concerned, but it is still one of peripheral countries when viewed from the flows of quality (or basic) cultures.
This paper discusses the increasing influence of television news reporting on foreign-policy making. Due to a remarkable technological breakthrough during the last decade, television images sometimes exert a powerful impact as was the case with the dispatch and the withdrawal of the U.S. mission to Somalia by the Bush and the Clinton administrations. In other cases, however, television pictures do not matter. The U.S. government did not get involved in Rwanda or deepen its involvement in Bosnia-Hertzegovina in spite of the repeated television coverage of the appalling situations in both regions. The difference derives from whether policy-makers have their own firm policy, without which they tend to be susceptible to television images. With today's media environment, policy-makers must have their own visions, agenda, and policies to cope with media's undue influence on foreign-policy making.
In the Post-Coldwar era, tremendous number of military conflicts broke out in the world. These conflicts cover various parts of a war spectrum from the highest intensity war at Persian Gulf to the lowest level of guerilla stacks which can be represented by the recent incident at Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima. As we have seen in the Gulf War, most governments and militaries made well organized effort to impose media control over these conflicts. Reflecting on the bitter experiences at the Vietnam War, they were able to win decisive victories on both fronts, military and media. The article encompasses on such mass-media controlled by governments and militaries versus communications lead by mass-media in the cases of Vietnam, Grenada, Panama, Gulf War, Chechenya and Terrolism.
This commentary describes "An Outline of Press Journalism in the 1990s, " Chapter 1 examines "Characteristics of the publishing industry" and Chapter 2 examines "Distinctive qualities of publishing media" to understand its driving force behind press journalism, Chapter 3, "Functions of journalism" takes up the concept of journalism. Chapter 4 "Situation of press media in the 1990s" summarizes the present state of the media. Chapter 5, "Points to verify in press journalism in the 1990s, "verifies the primary factors that are exerting an influence on the concrete development of press journalism in the processes of planning, gathering news, editing, publication, and distribution/sales; primary factors concerning gathering news and coverage, the media from within; and external primary factors concerning the media.
In the past year, a succession of general monthly magazines have suspended publication. Although the publishing scene was revitalized, for the first time in a long while, by the "comfort women" controversy last year, general magazines are likely to continue to experience hardship in a status quo in which the journalistic world itself has collapsed. As for weekly magazines, there, too, we find a long-term decline ever since their peak in the first half of the 80's. This is because other media, such as television and newspapers, have encroached on the domain of magazine journalism. Another factor has been the inability of weekly magazines to secure youthful readers, for whom the concept of weekly magazines signifies comic books and information magazines. Weekly magazines originated as a kind of guerrilla journalism competing with newspapers. Perhaps the time has come for them to take a second look at their fundamental principles.
Since the end of the Cold War, Germany has enteren into an age of unstable conditions concerning their collective ethnic identity. Although Germany has been known for its de-facto multiethnic society, racism has been having an increasing impact on society, especially in the 90's. This study examines the representation of'Auslander' in the German mass media based on the framework of Van Dijk's dicourse analysis. It shows the media's responsibility in causing 'new racism' as one of the social factors in society. The newspapers Frankfurter Allgemeine, Suddeutsche Zeitung and Bild are analysed.
In this age of the Internet, it is important to take notice of personal-computer communication, which is better than the Internet for two-way communication. This thesis mainly deals with the following three points:1. It has been said that personal-computer communication has made anonymous communication possible. However, if users want to enjoy all of its advantages, actual anonymity is difficult to maintain. 2. Since users issue information in personal-computer communication with no intent to gain profits, the information tends to be true. 3. Many aspects of personal-computer communication impose overload on users.
In Indonesia, the mass media has been controlled by the government to maintain "the unity and the stability of the state" and to promote development. The banning of two weekly magazines and one weekly newspaper in June 1994 stimulated the struggle for the freedom of speech. The independent journalists' association named AJI was established, and the growth of "alternative media" led to criticism of Suharto's authoritarian regime. Indonesia has been increasingly integrated into the structures of the global capitalist economy and is less able to isolate itself from the free flow of information. There are also international NGO networks. Globalisation means that the Indonesian Government is no longer able to restrict the freedom of speech.
The purpose of this paper is to study the construction of femininity in a novel by J. Tanizaki, Chijin no ai (published in 1925), by the critical approach to media discourse in a modern Japanese context. This novel is constituted by a monologue of a male voice, and the discoursive practice is in the relation of gender and power, I could see from this examination that the femininity and the excluded area in Tokyo, the desire of sexuality are articulated with West/non-West conjunctive power relations.
This paper focuses on the attractiveness of popular Comics. At first, in previous studies and the questionnaires sent to the readers of comics, I suppose readers (high school students) felt uncomfortable. Secondly, I tried to examine the contents of the most popular comics, paid more attention to the readers' interests. And the popular comics show the development of youth, their social relations and provide bracing laughter. Lastly , I concluded that the readers, situation and comic contents have a relationship. Instead of "true satisfaction", the readers seem to be satisfied with the world of comics. The popular comic is instrument of healing for readers.
A content analysis of television advertisements was conducted to explore portrayals of "foreigner" characters appearing in the Japanese television commercials. The data were sampled from all day broadcasting of weekend network television in 1995. This study evaluated the quantitative frequency of "foreigners" and their characteristics. The following characteristics were coded: "race", "sex", "age", "characteristics" and "token language". The comparison of some analysis of "foreigner" characters showed an increase in the number of "Asian" characters. Between "White" characters and "Asian" characters, significant differences were found in every coding category. The most frequent major role characters were "White", "Asian" characters tended to be portrayed in sub-major roles.
The resale price maintenance system for copyrighted works is provided for by the Antimonopoly Law. The Subcommittees on Deregulation of the Fair Trade Commission and the Administrative Reform Committee have discussed the system from the standpoint of economics and market policy. But this thesis examines the newspaper resale system from the constitutional and media viewpoints. My conclusion is that the resale system for copyrighted works, especially newspapers, is necessary to enable equal access to information by all citizens and that it plays a key role in guaranteeing freedom of expression described in Article 21 of Constitution.