After discussion by the editorial committee, we decided on the special theme for issue No.56 of the Journal of Mass Communication Studies as Shown above.There has been a wide range of development in themes and trends in recent criticism of journalism in Japan. One problem that has become a frequent topic of discussion in recent years is control of the media. Generally speaking, there are two aspects to this problem. First, in addition to the established power, the mass media themselves have become a power, one, moreover, with a large infuence on society. Second, the monopoly or oligopoly of the mass media has advanced, and the media have come to be controlled by a few media barons and media organizations. As a result of these tendencies, the media market has changed, and diversity in speech and in the media has lessened. We believe that this situation is dangerous for a democratic society.Consequently, the aim of this special issue is first of all to clarify whether the above presentation of the problems is valid or not. Secondly, if so, the mechanism of media control has to be clarified.We estabished four issues that need to be discussed from the above standpoints. They are : (1) international control of the media by multinational conglomerates ; (2) nationwide control of the media in Japan ; (3) local media control. These issues reflect contemporary viewpoints and are like concentric circles. However, there are many interrelated factors that have a bearing on media control. A historical examination is also necessary, so we decided that a historical perspective should be included as the fourth issue.Although the industrial / economic / management aspects of media control have tended to be disregarded to date, we belive that they are worthy of examination.On the other hand, we also attach importance to examining the kind of influence media control has exerted on political and social communication. The clarification of these problems is an important theme in the study of the contemporary media.
Inaba Michio once focused on the aethetics of Nakai Masakazu to elaborate the conception of media and mediation. Although 30 years have passed since Inaba's suggestion, the theoretical definition of MEDIA seems to remain confused. In this paper, picking up Nakai's investigation for medium and Mittel, I re-examine the ontological problems concerned with Media Studies. First, Nakai's argument about technology is examined from the two theoretical viewpoints : the concept of directedness-non-mediatedness, and the concept of cooperation. Next, I focus on his unique film theory and clarify of Nakai's theory in the present context of Media Studies.
The aim of this article is to examine the media theory of Murobuse Koshin, a well-known critic of civilization in the Taisho era. Though he is often said to have been a convert, he was always trying to elucidate the essence of the realization of democracy in mass society.I examine his analysis of the role of magazines published for women, the manipulative character of radio civilization, the sensationalism of journalism, and Shoriki Matutaro's interpretation of mass culture. Murobuse's conclusion was that the emancipation of human beings was "returning to earth", whice means spiritual fulfillment to cope with modern society.
This paper aims to analyse the differences among mass media in Vietnam and Laos, which are broadly categorised as the same former-Soviet Communist type, in which the press is forced to be a tool of the ruling communist party. Literature reviews and semi-structured interviews with editors and journalists indicate that while in Vietnam editors sometimes challenge the restrictions placed on the press and the pace of liberalisation of the mass media has faced cristicism from both inside and outside the country, in Laos they have just requensted the government to clarify what they can and cannot write.
The 'Boulevard Magazin' ( 'tabloid television'), which takes as its model the tabloid press, is now becoming increasingly popular in Germany. The development of this new TV genre called 'infotainment' was made possible by a structural change that was occurred in the German broadcasting system since 1984.While tabloid journalism has been scorned or disapproved of by most critics, some recent ethnographic studies revise the passive audience image held by those critics and give proof that the readings of tabloid readers are variable.In this article, I point out the same narrative elements as folklore in German tabloid television. This historical continuity of tabloids as popular culture gives an explanation of why tabloid journalism remains "popular" in spite of many criticisms. Tabloids produce popular discourses which are closely connected with readers' or viewers' identites. This doesn't mean the impossibility of criticizing tabloid journalism but presents a starting point for understanding it.
The concept of inter-media consonance is defined as converging tendencies in reporting of the same issues by different news media.Noelle-Neumann and Mathes (1987) hypothesized that this phenomenon should occur at three levels : agenda-setting, focusing, and evaluation.This article attempts to explore how far the consonance phenomenon is detected in Japanese news media. Five nightly TV news programs and two national newspapers were selected for the content analysis. The results shows that : 1) the issue agenda of the media outlets were quite similar in content in general and in election news ; 2) the focal aspects of the main election issues (of the 1998 Upper House election) were also similar among the different news outlets ; and 3) inter-media consonance, however was not confirmed at the evaluation level.
The primary objective of this research is to analyze the discourse and to clarify the relations to the social environment. The subject area is Japanese newspaper education in the 1950's. Newspapers were advocated to contribute to democratic society in opposition to pre-war textbooks. Publishing school newspapers were recognized as a system of democratization. It was also resembled the policy of GHQ. In contrast, it included conflicting ideas that were not to limit the function of newspaper in order to deepen understanding. Because this approach focuses more on understanding than on values, it has an affinity with the ideas of media literacy.
At the end of the 19th century, the telephone was a new medium. At the turn of the century, no modern societies could avoid this medium's influence. In the case of Japan, as in other countries, some changes had come with the introduction of the telehone. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of the telephone in Japan during the modern era (1890-1945) by means of analyses of discourse on expectations for the telephone. First, I describe a brief history of the telephone and social conditions in modern Japan. Second, I examine some cases of expectations through four types of organization. Finally, I point out the significance of these expectations as markers of the direction of the social impact of the new medium.
During the period from Pearl Harbor to the mass evacuation in mid-1942, the federal goverment enforced a unique press control policy on Japanese-language newspapers. During the first month following Pearl Harbor, the federal government took various suppressive measures such as arrests of publishers, interrogation of staff members, temporary shutdowns of newspapers, and Submission of English translations. Thereafter, the federal government continued to intervene by using less coercive methods. This press control policy, amplified by pressing wartime social conditions, was so effective that it enabled the government to elicit self-censorship without resorting to formal censorship or licensing. This article examines the subject in detail by using primary documents of governmental agencies and newspaper editors and publishers.
This paper examines the starting point of journalism research and education with the "Bleyer Approach, " which was revived and highly evaluated in the 90's. First, it gives an outline of the "Bleyer Stream, " then analyzes the characteristics of its curriculum. For further understanding of Bleyer's approach, it attempts to analyze the approach historically, using three keywords, sunlight journalism, public service, licensing. It shows that the "Bleyer Approach" cultivates the mission of journalism, that is, "public service, " and protects journalists who pursue it as the only "unorganized profession."
This study uses content analysis to determine how objectibely four recent Japanese prime ministers were covered by the U.S."elite" press : The New York Times, Washington Post, and The Los Angeles Times. It was hypothesized that their degree of "deviance" as a normative prime minister and their political / economic stances on U.S. -Japan relationship would influence the content of the elite press. The results show that bias exists. The present study also found a correlation between Japanese opinion polls and the perceived bias in the press, which implies that Japanese people's opinios might have affected the coverage.
A detailed content analysis of the 1996 U.S.presidential campaign advertising demonstrates foreign policy ads were highly negative and affectladen. A sampling of TV commercials sponsored by candidates including President Clinton and Senator Dole was analyzed to assess the emotional and issue content of the ads. The commercials were indentified by and provided by the University of Oklahoma's Political Communications Center. The 1996 ads also showed a marked shift in foreign-policy concerns. Cold War-inspired fear and concerns about economic competition of the previous era gave way to "intermestic" issues such as trade and immigration.