This paper aims to reconsider how the body is gendered and represented in the media program, in particular the media program of the Olympic Opening Ceremony. And then to ask the idea that the body is in actual existence a priori and its representation is the reflection, echo and effect of that body previous to its representation, I adopt the approach that the gendered bodies are constructed by and through its repetitive representations in the media and being constructed with the repetitive performances by speech acts and physical acts in the relations between social and cultural power and the various cultural configurations. This "gender constructivism" approach makes it possible to clear the reason why we can interpret an certain body's representation as "the female body" without any suspicions and on the other hand how we can change the gendered flame in the media program.
Despite recent studies on Japanese popular culture focusing on the representation of "orientalism" and/or nationalism, neo-colonialism and the subject of "orientalism" in the global era have not been sufficiently clarified. By referring to postcolonial theories, this paper reveals the inherent "orientalism" in publications targeted at women (aged 20-35), which featured East Asian cities for tourism from the late 90s. The "orientalism" discussed in this treatise has triple aspects as follows: the closeness to Asia, the admiration for the West, and the internalization of Westerners' eyes on Asia. At the same time, note that the consurmer culture of globalization makes the border meaningless.
This paper criticizes the current situation of electronic scholarly publishing in the United States from a cultural politics point of view. In most of the humanities, monographs are the central media. Being their main publishers, the university presses have always been inseparable from the knowledge production system. However, the commercialization of the presses accelerated rapidly after the 1990s. This has not only made it difficult for untenured young scholars to publish monographs, but has also had a negative impact on the cycle of knowledge production. To solve the issue, various possibilities of electronic publishing have been discussed. The History E-Book project is expected to play a central role. This large-scale project has participants from many historical studies associations and leading university presses, as well as considerable foundation support. In this paper, I would like to present an outline of the project, which is led by the well-known historian Robert Darnton. It will become clear that Darnton has only replaced paper with electronic forms, without any structural changes. In other words, he has automatically shifted the structure of the present knowledge production system based on a codex to cyberspace. The fundamental element which forms the monograph is the idea of "work," a coherent concept or idea unique to the author. This "work" is secured by the codex as physical form. How then can the electronic monographs with no physical form sustain the idea of "work"? Furthermore, given the fact that the significance of humanities, including historical studies, has declined remarkably in the United States in the 1990s, the History E-Book project is also expected to redress the "humanities crisis." However, the project has no such potential. The current situation should be understood as a sign of conflict caused by changes in the constellation of modern knowledge.
The five-minute music program 'MINNA NO UTA' (Everyone's Songs), which has been broadcast on NHK since 1961, has contributed to the popularization of new children's songs. It has created about one thousand tunes, influencing musical education and popular music in Japan. This paper explores the characteristics and meanings of this program by focusing on its text as well as the processes of its production and consumption. My research involved conducting interviews with directors and distributing questionnaires to audiences. My aim is to explain the uses of this program by audiences through their everyday lives and how this TV program contributes to creating new children's songs. My conclusions are, firstly, that this program has a distinctive history that has been flexibly transforming songs into appropriate styles for children in the TV age. Secondly, these songs played a role in constructing a national collective identity for everyone (including grown-ups), especially from the 60s to the 80s, because these texts have functioned as 'national music' mediated by a state channel.
A community broadcasting station is a local form of media to provide areaspecific information to people in the target area. The ojective of this study is to identfy the present situation and the potential of Internet broadcasting now provided by community broadcasting stations. For this purpose, the author conducted interviews with community broadcasting stations in Hokkaido. Results showed that a community FM broadcasting station can be accepted as a form of local media even in the area beyond the original coverage and can also be received in the different purpose from radio waves.
I propose a new method to estimate the size of the WWW based on statistical analysis of URLs collected by a search robot. I also report on transition of the growth of the Web in the jp domain, based on periodic investigaitions done using the above method. The total size of the Web in the jp domain has grown more than 6 times during 4 years, reaching 66 million pages by February 2002. I also estimate the number of personal web pages in the jp domain to be about 19 million pages as of September 2000.
The U.S. Military exercised almost perfect media control and propaganda during the Persian Gulf War. How did they develop their skills of media control at a time of limited wars during the Kosovo War? This study attempts to answer this question and should be suggestive of media control and propaganda in future limited wars conducted by the United States. A critical review of the literature, including items collected in Belgrade during the war shows that a tendency toward "invisible war" has emerged, in which the military does not have to introduce any media control.