The purpose of this paper is to analyze the qualification system for journalists in Japan by examining the interwar period. Once the newspaper industry became large-scale, journalists claimed the socioeconomic status governed by the license, as had happened in the United States. But protection and control are two sides of the same coin. Journalist protections could be transformed into restrictions, as happened in Germany and Italy, when war approached. This system was introduced in Japan at the time of World War II.
This paper presents the results of a comparative study of Internet use from a survey on university students in Korea and Japan. The purpose of the study is first to make a comparison of Internet use between the two countries, and then to explain how the apparent behavior in Internet use is influenced by underlying motivation. It has been found that the use of the Internet can be grouped into four types according to motivation: "Communication" "Habitual" "Information-seeking" "Entertainment". We have discussed the correlation between type of motivation and resulting behavior by examining total log-on time as well as access and posting frequency to community sites. We have also examined the differences between the Korean and Japanese students' Internet use.
This paper considers the problem of Art and its use as a medium in the Meiji period, so I take the texts of Masakazu Toyama, who was an ideologue of the Japanese Government of the time. He was very interested in Art. But he saw Art as a mean of propagating the governmental conception to the nation. For him, a medium must be natural without noise. It must be self-evident. And this natural medium was a tool to make the people into a nation. I take his texts about Art to show what his thoughts about this medium were.
In contrast to the abundance of reflection in media history on the media industry and the process of media production, there is a dearth of consideration of the bodiness and "practices" of the media audience. In the interest of addressing this problem, this paper focuses on Japanese broadcasting in its early history, and enquires into the process of (1) how people encountered the practice of "listening" and (2) how they became radio listeners themselves. Due to limits in the spread of the use of electricity, roughly 90 percent of all households in the 1920s could not use electricity during the daytime, meaning that many people listened to broadcasts of college baseball-categorically the most popular daytime broadcast in the early history of radio-not privately, at home but publicly through "street radios" (gaito rajio). The "street radio" thus became an important site that not only provided people with the opportunity to observe the action of "listening" to the radio, which was still a novel media at the time, but also directed them to a historical moment in which they could internalize the practices of listening to sports broadcasts-even to the point of directing them to yell and cry at moments befitting their role as an "audience" for the new media.