Information Technology (IT) demands newspaper-journalism change widely. Some changes are found mainly in news-gathering and newsroom, as follows : 1) Journalists in newspaper companies in Japan seemingly hesitate to go and find news in the huge field of the internet world, because it takes too much time to check the credibility. 2) They become more passive to check and estimate information by themselves. They are almost drowning in the flood of internet information. 3) Few journalists come to think that scoops should be disseminated to people as rapidly as possible via the web, before printing the newspaper. 4) The question about what the journalists should know and how the newspaper should disseminate it to people-what the News is in the newspaper-is now asked again. Printed newspaper will survive in the future, but with ever-decreasing readers. Redefining journalism is needed for the argument within journalism in the new world of the internet and the pursuit of good journalism, however else the world may change.
The citizen's participation in journalism has faced a big change due to the spread of the digital media after the 90s. This paper presents many concrete examples and analyzes the various aspects of the so-called "citizen journalism, " such as the Internet newspapers and the Internet broadcast, as well as the recent trend of the "blog journalism" in Japan. The relationship between this new kind of journalism and the existing mass media is also discussed. This paper also discusses the role of the NGO and NPO, which are increasingly taking the lead in the civic journalism.
'2ch (2 channel)' is the most popular anonymous BBS in Japan. It consists of hundreds of categories called 'ita (board)', and each ita also consists of hundreds of threads. Occasionally many responses are noted on some threads instantaneously, but most of these phenomena are regarded as consummatory communications like so-called 'matsuri (festival)' not as public opinion. But some of these have possibility of becoming public opinion when these are referred by other web sites, covered by mass media. So the inter-media relations can make anonymous BBS rouse public opinion, when an argument in some thread is cited by other media one after another.
In this paper, I seek to re-examine the significance of the digitalization of "writing". The mediation of "writing" by digital technology has become a normal and ever expanding aspect of contemporary society. My first task is to examine this condition on the meta-level. The specific subject matter of my inquiry is the Nihongo-wapuro (Japanese word-processor) whose history I have attempted to trace here. Written Japanese texts are composed of a heterogeneous mixture of different types of characters, including hiragana, katakana, and kanji. The vast number of characters required in order to produce such texts has rendered the mechanization process far more difficult in Japanese than it has been for European languages that use alphabetic scripts. When computers were introduced into the world of business in the 1970s, newspaper journalists continued to write by hand, despite the appearance of electronic systems for newspaper compilation and editing. The first word-processor for writing Japanese, the Toshiba JW-10, appeared in 1978. It then became possible to produce Japanese texts mechanically with the aid of electronic processing. The adoption of word-processors in Japan has spread rapidly since the mid-1980s. Besides being used in offices, they came to be employed in schools and in the home as well. People with no prior experience of using electronic devices quickly developed a keen interest in the Japanese word-processor. At first, word-processors were viewed primarily as devices for the production of "clean copies" or for printing. However, with time, many books came to be written extolling the Nihongo-wapuro as much more than a mere typewriter for the Japanese language. The Japanese word-processor, it was claimed, had brought about a "great revolution in intellectual production". The bodily action of typing had long been an unrealized dream of those who wrote in Japanese. The Nihongo-wapuro was the means that at long last brought this to reality. Nevertheless, the most widespread everyday use to which word-processors were put was the production of New-Year greeting cards (which according to Japanese custom are sent out in great numbers at the beginning of each year). At the same time, these mechanically produced New-Year cards were criticized as lacking in human feeling. In this paper, I examine the Japanese word-processor from the three perspectives of technology, the body and society. I investigate how the word-processor was able to provide a foundation for the digitalization of "writing" in Japan. In addition, I look at the significance of the Japanese word-processor's function as a machine for the production of "clean copies" and printed texts. This was related to the fact that "writing" always took place in relation to "editing". Thus, the adoption of the word-processor in Japan has brought to light the emerging problematic of "editing".
After describing the main features of TeX-Ray, the author reports the result of an experimental study performed to validate the data set which was generated by TeX-Ray from editorials of four major newspapers. The validation was performed by regressing the TeX-Ray-generated data set on poll support ratings for Koizumi cabinet, during the period from April, 2001 through September, 2004. The regression analysis demonstrated an existence of unusually strong systematic relationship between editorial treatments of the cabinet and the cabinet support ratings, strongly indicating that the TeX-Ray-generated data set was a valid one.
The purpose of this paper is to understand the behavior of simultaneous use of two forms of media. It seeks to analyze the characteristics of people who engage in such behavior and the factors regulating it. This analysis should provide a foundation for a comprehensive understanding of the influence of the new medium of internet on the existing medium of television. The principle source of data for this study was a time use survey. According to this survey, 12.6% of home internet users made simultaneous use of both television and computer internet in the space of their home. The average daily length of time spent in such simultaneous behavior was 10.2 minutes. The main factor correlating with such simultaneous use was length of television viewing : when heavy television viewers also made use of the internet, there was a high likelihood that they would use the internet simultaneously with television. The proportion of people who used mobile internet simultaneously with television was 16.2%, and the average daily time spent this way was 8.2 minutes. Simultaneous use of mobile internet and television was greater among women, and tended also to be greater among younger people and heavy television users.
This study tries to examine Stuart Hall's milestone work, 'Encoding/Decoding' which brought the starting point for new audience researches. First, Hall's dialectical method which was elaborated through close reading of Marx's texts is considered as the core of theoretical backgrounds and the source of critical power for the Encoding/Decoding model. Second, criticism of class reductionism towards the model is examined in order to identify Hall's theoretical standing position after Gramsi's thought was positively introduced. Third, the model's possibility as a formula to research globalism which is going on in the communications field is suggested.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss why John Reith, the first Director-General of the BBC, had sympathy for fascism despite his pursuit of the independence of broadcasting from government control. In Japan, it is hardly known that his political thought was quite elitist. This paper shows that it was his elitism to make him pursue independence of the BBC from government control. Because he distrusted government elected by mass votes, he tried to establish public corporations which might be independent from it and enable elites to control the society without suffering from mass democracy.
This dissertation focuses on the issue of relevance of Korean broadcasting with that of Japanese and the acceptance of Japanese "TV soft" in Korean broadcasting. By interviewing forty Korean producers working in the terrestrial TV, it discusses what the Korean producers accepted from contacting Japanese "TV soft" and what influences Japanese TV brought on Korean broadcasting through the grounded theory approach. As a result, it is the response to audience's demands for more liberal and various programs during the new trend of democratization of Korean society. Moreover, the acceptance of Japanese "TV soft" is not just a Korean broadcast's copy of Japanese TV style but rather the effort to create the programs which better fit Korean culture.