I try to review the studies on media and politics. The 21st century begins, the situation to surround the media becomes severe. So called "media regulation bills" are discussed and the critical situation has the press freedom. On the other hand, it follows, the development of the mass media intensifies influence of the media in politics more. The studies on the media and politics are increased. But many papers handled only a phenomenon side. I prey to increase papers, theoretical and systematical approach.
The purpose of this article is to review select important studies (both books and articles) on ethics of mass media (or of journalists) published in the last decade in Japan. The themes of these studies can be categorized into three, which pertain to independent regulatory commission (e.g.press council), professional education for journalists (or for future journalists), and rules on routine newsgathering and editing. The most recent studies have focused more on social system of media ethics than on norms and behaviors of journalists.
The term 'subculture' has been used with many different meanings. From the point of view what culture was supposed to be against the term 'sub-'culture, I try to classify the uses of subculture into three groups. 1) Subculture as an antonym of high culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to massmedia. 2) Subculture as an antonym of total culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to segmented media. 3) Subculture as an antonym of main or dominant culture, in this case, subculture mainly related to alternative media. Based on the typology, I try to survey recent treatises or books on 'media and subculture'.
The purpose of this article is to introduce Japanese media studies according to the relationship between intimacy and public sphere. Since the 70s the concept of 'life style' has been generally used. This concept, however, already became out of date because it has been deeply involved with consumer society so called. Because of the advent of information and communication technologies in the 90s, we have experienced a drastic social transformation. As I mentioned above, our attention should be more paid to a reformation of the concepts of public and private instead of focusing on the concept 'lifestyle'.
The most significant media changes of the last decade were in the appearance and popularization of the Internet and in the extension of cellular phone functions. In this paper, I will firstly indicate how telecommunication and broadcast has been theoretically positioned in the process of their convergence and then touch upon the fact that media theorists saw the maturation of web communication and the development of print journalism to BBS and then blogging, accompanied also by the enlargement of conventional mass media such as TV-broadcasting to enable active participation by the viewer, as coterminous events. I will then argue that under the spread of cellular phones and the innovation of their handsets and services, a fulltime intimate community has been constructed as a deeply intimate area neither restrained by place nor physical space. It is likely that various media communication services will soon be offered targeting this intimate sphere and the small public sphere it provides on the web. SNS (social networking service) which has seen increasing popularity in recent years is one such example, and apprehending this phenomenon is one of the most important issues which media theories must address.
The study of media history is one of the fields in the media studies and there is a variety of courses in the field at the universities such as history of journalism, history of broadcasting and history of mass communication. Although the study has been traditionally popular among researchers, from my point of view, it could not be said that its approach is systematised, especially in Japan. In this essay I would like to review the recent trend of the studies of media history in Japan, and present three viewpoints in attempt to develop and systematise the field of media history in future.
This article analyzes the current of the study of journalism ethics in the U.S. and tries to find out what Japan should learn from it. So, it discusses and deploys the point by paying the attention to the big flow that the Commission on Freedom of the Press initiated, as the starting point. There are two major flows in the U.S. The one is to try to establish a philosophical base of the study of journalism ethics. The other is the flow that global guidelines should be shown to the journalists in a form like the ethics code. Today, the study of journalism ethics in Japan has an issue to challenge, which is to release the study of journalism ethics from spellbinding of the study of the legal system in Japan.
This study aims to explore the role of transnational media in the process of formation of national/transnational identities. For this purpose, it investigates a case of young Japanese in New York City and London, by using multi-sited ethnography. The major finding is that contrary to the general discussion of transnationalism, transnational media, e.g. television, newspaper, or the Internet, lead informants to renegotiate their sense of Japaneseness. The main reason seems to be that these informants have internalised the notion of the 'homogenous' Japanese nation, and their sense of Japaneseness is intensified while living in a multiethnic society.
This study develops a method to map frames in Japanese news. Computer analysis helps to map frames in the news basing on the frequency and co-occurrence frequency of key words in the press coverage of the ASEAN Summit held in 2005. The analysis revealed that Japanese press made an emphasis on Japan's domestic problems in the ASEAN Summit report and failed to fully express the main points of the summit. A comparison between the frame map of press and that of the declarations of the summit showed the difference between the coverage and the reality.
How can the advice-giving be accomplished in the media? Answering this question, I apply conversation analysis, and, especially, membership categorization analysis to the advice-giving interaction in the popular television talk show. My points are threefold. (1) The trouble-tellers categorize themselves to make their troubles accountable for the guests. (2) The guests use categories as rhetorical resources in giving advices. (3) Sometimes a category-oriented advice is rejected by a trouble-teller who locates her trouble in the level deeper than the categorical one. We can observe that the accomplishment of interaction in categorical level may mask further details of the very trouble.
"The Seven Professors affair" is famous as the pro-war movement of Tokyo university professors before the Russo-Japanese War. Their movement is likely to be criticized as irresponsible and silly. However the overview of the affair and their intention are not well known. In this paper, to explain the background and the overview of the affair, I will examine the public opinion to the affair, through newspaper and magazine articles at that time as well as reminiscences of those who involved. Their movement came to the first case of consumption of the intellectuals in Japan.
From the Meiji to the Taisho era, newspaper companies had undergone a particularly large growth in their enterprises. This paper focuses on "Kodomo Hakurankai" (the children's exhibition) held in 1926 and demonstrates how newspaper companies incorporated the issue of children's cultural programs into their corporate strategies. A special mention of this exhibition was that the first newspaper daily specifically for children was published in Japan. This fact is important in two senses. For one thing, considering that newspapers were regarded as for adults, the fact that a children's newspaper was published is significant. For another, the main occupation (publishing newspapers) was newly produced by the side job (various activities including the children's exhibition).
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relationship between nationalism and mass media from theoretical perspectives. Although many researchers have pointed out mass media contributed to nationalism, their theoretical framework has not been systematically established. For the development of further research, I introduce two concepts of nationalism: ideal nationalism and recognitive nationalism. While ideal nationalism refers to ideology which seeks to realize "national interests," recognitive nationalism means specific form of recognition which makes people regard the world of nations as natural. I argue that these concepts are useful for the analysis of the mass media and nationalism.
Considerable research has been devoted to revealing the logic of justifications for the wartime structure of social domination. Rather less attention has been paid to the logic of teachers' consumption of films. I will focus on teachers' film consumption in the 1930s, by analyzing the "Moving wall chart" controversy. This controversy shows us the foundations of film consumption, thus explaining not only how the logic of teachers' education benefits the construction of nationalism through films, but also demonstrating that there is a particular politics of perception in watching films.