This special issue is a collection of papers based on the symposium 2, Spring Study Program at Kansai University (Jul. 4. 2010), titled "A Study of Media Culture; Issues and Perspectives. At the symposium, members discussed about the condition of "the study", area issues, issues of the methods, direction of future perspectives, based on the keyword of "Media Culture, with 5 presenters and debaters. A study of journalism is the most important column for a study of mass communication, on the other hands, in these days, also a media acceptance as entertainment and culture among peoples' daily life from public culture and popular culture to youth culture. Also study areas are expanding from mass media to net culture and sub culture. Our main focus for the symposium was to discuss about these emerging changes form the interests of "how to study media culture". In this special issue, we asked to each discussant to bring again the issues which they could not discuss enough at the symposium. We can publish these discussions in "the shape" of this special issue, since each discussant has accepted our offers of scheme sincerely and I thank you to all of them. In this special issue, Kyoko Koizumi who was a symposium chair and worked at the beginning of the planning of this symposium, Masato Hasegawa and Koji Namba who presented the issues, and Yasuaki Narita, Hajime Hasegawa, Mamiko Hayashida who were debaters, and these 6 members have developed the discussion relatively freely to beyond to individual roll at symposium. It is hoped that this special issue will become a stimulus even a little, especially to many readers who are interested in the symposium and also to young researchers who are studying in the field of media culture.
There are two sides of mass communication, one is for the side for journalism and the other is for the side of media. Mass communication as journalism consists the discipline of democracy at society. Also mass communication has a role of deliver the information about politics, crimes, and economics correctly. On the other hand, mass communication has the side of incantation. Common people are willing to enjoy criminal and political reports as much as fictions and dramas. To respond to such desire, popular culture of 20^<th> century has also developed. However, such a media culture as an amusement has held a lower position of gossips and rumors in the field of mass communication study. From now on, media culture has to be analyzed as a main focus of mass communication. Media exits not only for the justice but for the joy of living.
In this paper I insist the increasing value of adopting media cultural studies, after I defined the media culture as peoples' ways of life surrounding by media based on the relative decline of situation of mass communication recently. And then as well as media cultural studies will refer to the recent condition of media actually, based on much wider perspective, I unfold the consideration about the essence of media and I also offer an opinion that they progresses by becoming both wheels.
This paper focuses on the word 'media' to reposition by the character of multilayered and also to reposition that word by the relation with 'the things to understand and its way.' First of all, I confirm that the concept of tacit knowledge by Polanyi will relate to the understanding of the 'flame' of the thing. The flame only consists through the medium and we cannot touch to it directly. While I follow again the basic cornerstones of the origins of media and communication, I see that the word 'media' heavily attaches to 'mass media' and it has been losing fleshes. Then I show the cause of concept to divide communication with the dualistic theory of direct and indirect, I also show the limitation in front of idleness reality which is more media oriented in these days. I show that daily experience has been the reproduction of the flame which used to be used by showing the both polar side of the chance of reconstruction of the flame itself, and I confirm it with 'layer studies of study and communication' by Bateson. Hence I showed the possibility of the approach to 'flame' by examining the concept of Bateson, 'context marker.'
The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediated musical culture through the keywords of "emotiveness", "ritualizaion" and "symbolization" as the characteristics of media extracted from the symposium 2 on July 4^<th>, 2010. This paper is based on my fieldwork through observations and interviews with middle-aged and elderly male guests of folksong pubs [foku sakaba] and gig venues in Kyushu, Kansai, Aichi and Tokyo areas since 2007. I focus on elder amateur guitarists because baby boomers [dankai sedai] reached to 60 years old, at the retirement age from regular companies in Japan, in 2007 and they started coming back to their interests of their younger days, which singing folksongs to their own guitar accompaniment [hikigatari]. This paper on the folksong community presents the changing role of music bound to the specific generation in the process of generalization. It is revealed that the folksong community in larger city (Fukuoka City) tends to be pastime. In contrast, in the folksong community in smaller cities (Saga and Imari City), folksong are used as a trigger to vitalize the local communities as music is the bond between the parents' and children's generations. In the previous fieldwork on Japanese high school pupils, I found the tripartite layer of categories in popular music-personal music, common music and standard. Therefore, in this paper, how middle-aged male amateur guitarists pass their generation's music to the next generation as well as how they sympathize with each other through folksongs is investigated. It is found that the crossroad of the woof (contemporaneity) and warp (succession) of Japanese folksong creates a new category of popular music such as 'empathy music' or 'entrustment music'. Through this new category, the parents' generation entrusts their passion of youth to children's generation.
In this article, I examined the aspect of "the reality", that the media creates, has incorporated into the culture. The issue of "the reality of the media" in the mass media situation was almost considered to be a "genre" problem until now. The mass media prescribed a reality principle by every promise of the genre form. In the new media communication that the Internet created, "the reality of the media" has become a new issue recently. There are two types of "reality", the reality in daily face-to-face communication and the reality of the media. Is it both existing "reality" of a same type or a different type? In other words, is it "reality" to unfold on a totally different principle? According to the multiple reality theory in the phenomenological sociology of Schutz, "I" am conscious of the world as a thing consisting of multiple realities. He calls "reality" of the special privilege "daily reality" or "paramount reality", in the world of inter-subjectivity, shared with another person within that world. Schutz pays attention to the point that there are the reference relations of two kinds in "appresentation" of Husserl. Symbolic appresentation transcends the world of the daily life and gives there expression, and the appresentation except it. Because the symbolic appresentation transcends a finite province of meaning called the everyday life, the side appresenting belongs to everyday life, but the appresented member has its reality in another finite province of meaning or in James's terminology, "subunivers". "Reality of the media" is the reality that the media appresent. Limitation of the power about the reality construction of "paramount reality" does not extend to the world that the media does appresent. Media space is the world of "the reality" in the open type for the horizon which is a same word of "symbolic" by Schutz. In the new situation of media communication represented by the Internet, it is necessary to update a definition of "reality" in the media culture with a concept of "reality of the media".
This paper aims to suggest the meaning and significance of studies on mass-media expression process as culture. In the studies of media and culture, receiver's side has been widely examined, however sender's side has been quite rare. In particular, culture on the inside of mass-media, actual conditions of production and expressions has gone virtually unexamined. This paper especially focuses on news program production activities and innovations in film camera. Film camera had been used on news production in early years of television before ENG system. Progress in the technologies associated with television cameras has led to major changes in program production techniques. At the same time, that was connected with transformation of broadcasting culture. This study traces changes in broadcaster's expression and their feelings relate to the television camera technologies in the micro-interaction level. This examination is based on the results of interview conducted at broadcast sites using ethnographic methods. Finally, this paper suggests it is necessary to understand media and culture from a perspective of that media communication must be involved in the cycle of sender and receiver.
This article analyzes the genre of jinbutsu hyoron [articles written about notable figures], specifically during the surge of its popularity in Japanese journalism during the early 1930s. By this time, the democratization of the publication industry that began in the late 20s had reached its peak and the journalism had fully matured. These developments, however, spurred editors toward an unprecedented reliance upon the celebrity of those who wrote for their publications, a policy that was also in line with efforts to make commentary more appealing and accessible to the general reader who lacked basic knowledge. As a result, it could be said that the reader in turn consumed not the content of the text but the very name of the author who wrote the text. At the center of this article is an analysis of this form of consumption, which I refer to as "name consumption." Jinbutsu hyoron became popular as a genre that manifested this motive for publication. This analysis gathers samples of jinbutsu hyoron that have hitherto been ignored, as well as samples of related discourse, from literary magazines, mass magazines, and newspapers of the time and, while comparing them against each other, demonstrates the reality and the perceptions surrounding the representations of notable figures. First, I delineate the basic format and stances of works of jinbutsu hyoron. Next, taking into account the linguistic context of the reader, I analyze the conditions of reception of these works by relating them to the publication environment at the time. Lastly, by also taking a look at cartoon articles, which were equally popular during this period, I attempt to establish a more multi-faceted understanding of "name consumption." Overall, this article seeks to shed light on the way celebrity was a driving force in the structure of journalistic discourse in the 1930s.
This paper aims at examining the process of creation and change of readers' community in the magazine "Jyogaku Sekai". For this purpose, I analyzed the letters from readers, and discussed about the historical transition of their writing and communication style. Through a past quantitative analysis, it became clear that a large change has occurred around 1916. At first, a major function of the readers' column was exchanging information about daily life, postcards, books, and etc. However, around 1916, the function of exchanging information disappeared, and the letters of readers became more fictional, romantic, and daydreaming. A use of pen name, graceful style of writing, and sentimental motif spread among girls, these elements established the friendships of readers, and the romantic community was made by the function trough the magazine. I summarize that the large change has occurred based on the decline in the age of readers, the expansion of female magazine market, and development of girl culture in Taisho era.
This study analyzes the messages written about the Japanese television program "24-Hour Television: Love Saves the Earth" on the website "2 channel," the most popular online community in Japan. The study explores the comments on this television program in the online community by evaluating the features of TV watching when the program is viewed with writing messages online, and examines the various motives of the contributors of writing online. Previous studies indicated that internet users tend to be involved in "24-Hour Television"; hence, this study also explores why this show attracts so many internet users. Text mining of the messages written in "2 channel" revealed that people wrote comments as same time as they were watching TV. In their comments, the words used to express their impressions of the TV show were "kando (impression)" and "gizen (hypocrisy)." These comments suggest that the major features of their TV watching style are "tsukkomi" (to play the straight man) and "urayomi" (to guess behind the production of this show). The results also suggest that the main motive for writing their comments in the online community is social interaction (to share their emotions with the show and their watching experiences). Hence from comments on this show, it is suggested that this show's live in "2 channel" has already annual event to "2 channel" users and this show's characteristics maybe fit for live in "2 channel". It also seems that the motives for writing messages in community sites while watching TV and the features of TV programs that stimulate online messages may be common to all messages about TV in online community sites.
A postcard nowadays is perceived self-evident as a private communication tool; however, it was once "a new medium" in the past. This paper explores a postcard from a historical viewpoint to reconsider it as a medium. Paying attention to socio-cultural factors surrounding the establishment of postal service system in Japanese modernization process, it will closely look into "Hagaki Bungaku" (in Japanese, the title literally means "postcard literature"), a popular magazine specializing in a picture postcard hobby. The main discussion is about its readers' active contribution as well as its editorial policy during the Russo-Japanese War period which is said to be the heyday of picture postcards. In this paper, the concept of hagaki bungaku, which in fact suggested writing "short literature on a postcard", will be investigated in relation to material characteristics of picture postcards. Meanwhile, the "postcard literature" written by the magazine's readers will be examined in terms of cultural practices, linking with the socio-cultural aspects of Meiji era. Finally, this paper summarizes "a postcard as literature" as "a possible pattern" of postcards as a medium, indicating that the framework achieved from historical approach of media will be also efficient in understanding contemporary media phenomena.
This study examined about the expression called "real public opinion" of China in the early 1930s. Specifically, I focus on the newspapers of abolition movement of civil war in 1932, the tone of magazine, controversy over public opinion in the study of journalism and expression of "real" about rule theory in Chinese Nationalist Party. After the Manchurian Incident, some Chinese papers searched the formation of the national government system and put the need for "real public opinion" supporting to them heavily. One of them searched for "real" of public opinion whether civil war with punitive expedition to Chinese Communist Party was right or wrong. The tone was involved in acceptance or refusal Chinese Communist Party. The close idea of the side of national government system was dominant. They were affected argument over the notion of public opinion itself in Chinese journalism systematized after 1920s and newspaper business imposed embodiment of public and commerce developed. On study of journalism, they were divided into two positions. One is "real" of public opinion lead the public. And the other is based on them. For the aims of newspaper business with large profits, they connected newspaper's character with decisive problem. On the other hand, actual politics aimed for national formation that starts the people's ability estimate low by one-party rule of Chinese Nationalist Party. In the beginning of the nation-state age, the interpretation of "real" cannot apply to public opinion but also such as citizen, popular will and constitutional government in the early 1930s. As a result, they asked for the core of unity into society and nation. And also "real public opinion" was subject to the movement of actual politics.
This article analyzes the page layouts of photography magazines during the Russo-Japanese War, and it thus reveals the emergence of the "photographic construction of vision" in photography magazines, or the mutual referencing and montage between the photographs and the text on the same page. The page layouts of photography magazines are visually constructed not only by the photographs themselves but also by the relationship between the photographs and the text such as articles or captions. Such "photographic construction of vision" in these magazines is a historic phenomenon. Through an examination of the Records of the Russo-Japanese War (Nichiro senso jikki) and its special issue Photographic Pictorial of Russo-Japanese War (Nichiro senso shashin gaho), a study of the photography correspondents dispatched by these magazines, and a comparative analysis of the page layouts and the moving pictures of that time, this article reveals that the concept of photographic construction emerged in photography magazines around 1900. This finding can be confirmed by the following observations: (1) the editor's reflective consideration of photo editing, (2) mutual referencing between the photographs and the text, and (3) the photographic style of the montages used in the magazine. Finally, this article concludes that such photographic construction became more complicated and established in later periods, and that it came to be a precursor of the modernist movement in the 1930s and the war propaganda by means of photographs in the 1940s. Moreover, it caused distraction and lead to readers cursorily examining the relationship between the text and photographs without deconstructing this relationship.
This study aims to clarify a generating process of the time structure of television live program that has worked out "the sharing Time" relation among the television, the viewer, and the social events, and also to consider how it transforms in digitalization. I examined the historical data mainly through the interview research with the producers of the news programs which were recognized to develop a new forms of live program in the Japanese television history. The reason to focus on the daily live news programs as the target for the survey and analysis is that the news programs are the daily connection point of the social event and the viewer. And the technological factor and the program structure related closely in this genres. In the latter half of the 20th century, the television has developed as main media of the society which ties "Now" of the event in the world and "Now" of family time as the only media image in daily life. It has been pointed out by main researchers that the characteristic of the television connected to the time has been a source of television's "Power" to the society. However, as a result of the research, we can find that characteristic was not given to television from the beginning. It has been formed by the producers of the programs, as a result of designing the time structure of "Program" to create "the Sharing time" related between the viewer and the television. At the same time, it is clarified that the time structure of the environment of media image have been "multilayered", "movable", "interactive" by the digitalization of the television and other media image. This phenomenon has the possibility to influence on the relationship between the time of the television and the society extensively.