Freedom of the press now appears to be very close to a crisis. For the past
few years, mass media has not been able to fulfill their role as a fourth estate.
Two bills passed in 2013, despite repeated criticism: the Special Secrecy Act and
the “My Number” Act. This paper analyzes how these two acts control and
regulate the freedom of the press, in order to perform their designated purposes.
The Special Secrecy Act was legislated to control and protect classified
information that is concerned with national defense, diplomatic relations, the
activity of secret agents, and counter terrorism. However, what counts as classified
information is very broad in scope and under administrative discretion, so
it cannot be clearly defined by the act.
The “My Number” Act involves initiating a national ID numbering system.
Its goals are making administrative procedures more efficient and effective for
the government and more convenient for the people. The act applies to all registered
residents of Japan, and this system is now expanding to all areas of our
daily life. The government has a big plan for all residents to have a“ My Number
Card,” which would affect every aspect of residents’ privacy.
It seems that we are being placed under the control of these acts, which
will lead to a Surveillance Society. Due to this situation, the activities of mass
media will be more observed and controlled. The mass media should make
every endeavor to exercise the freedom of the press. For instance, they should
practice investigative reporting by using FOIA, Open Data, or Big Data.
The spread of digital media has produced a new social realm, so that
everyone can freely exchange information. In this paper, I will try to investigate
how the digital media could change and create a new deliberative realm. This
paper emphasizes the necessity for bringing the social and the substantial features of the realm together in order to grasp the transformation of the discourse
space. In other words, the focus of analysis is the structural change in
the material and social system of circulated information.
This change has two sides. The first one is the expansion of controlling the
discourse space and social communication processes through that space. On the
contrary, the second one could include an impossibility to control any of them.
The transformation of the space of discourse in social communication processes
which was made by digital media has a historical significance. The reason
is that it creates “an appearance” of space, which Hanna Arendt pointed
out in her book - “The Human Condition” -. However, it might also bring the
possibility of creating another phenomenon, an infection of feeling and contagion
of affect. It is a process of activating affects.
Finally, this paper suggests that more research is needed to investigate the
factors of affection and time to be able to grasp the singularities and transformation
of the space of discourse.
Along with the evolution of the media, risk society and globalization have
made progress. Media technology manages the risks that result as these functions
become means of control. With the progress of risk society and globalization,“
crisis management” has become an important theme in the world.
The problem with the National Security Agency （NSA） monitoring global
communication has become apparent in the Snowden incident. Changes in
media have also caused evolutions in intelligence activities: state power to monitor
the world, social structure to preserve state secrets in the name of security,
and risk management. Computers and the internet are supporting the social
Under the pretext of security （e.g., counterterrorism）, monitoring technology
has evolved and been introduced to society. As with intelligence activity,
this technology is a technique for preventing potential risks that could create
crises. Big data is used for economic marketing in corporate activities. It has
been used as a tool for intelligence activities by political power.
The Arab Spring was described as “Revolution 2.0.” Public Diplomacy 2.0
is using social media （e.g., Twitter and Facebook）. While bonding with intelligence
activities, this development has affected international relations. In this
way, media evolution and risk management society have progressed in the
In this paper, we examine the role of literary taste among youth in Japan.
Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of taste assumes that individuals are ranked according
to their taste from the most refined to the most vulgar. Reading novels appears
to be a perfect example of Bourdieu’s theory, as reading is taught directly in
school. However, Bourdieu’s theory seems to be at odds with the Japanese situation,
where influential literary critics have witnessed the ‘downfall’ of onceesteemed
literature that, as they saw it, has now ceased to be relevant to society
and become merely entertainment.
Even when the popularity of“ light novels” and“ cell phone novels” caused
controversy in the 2000s regarding their quality due to the former’s anime/
manga-like characters and the latter’s unconventional style of writing and
excessively sentimental plots, scholars and journalists countered the disparaging
discourse on these supposedly “lowbrow” novels. Although Bourdieu
assumes individuals to be taste-sensitive and taste to be a fundamental capital
in every field of cultural practice, for the case of novel reading in Japan, this
very assumption must be called into question.
Drawing from the 2010 Youth Culture and Communication Survey in Nerima
（Tokyo）, we explore whether literary taste is still relevant to the sense of distinction
among young novel readers. We examine the difference between selfcategorized
novel hobbyists and non-hobbyist novel readers, and we test
whether what they read accounts for the gap between the two groups.
The findings show that the types of novels are relevant to their self-categorization.
In particular, those who read classical novels are more likely to regard
reading novels as a hobby and those who read cell-phone novels are less likely.
Against literary critics’ skepticism about the cultural authority of literature in
Japan, these findings indicate that even urban youth conform to the conventional
hierarchy of literary taste.
On December 17, 2015, the Seoul Central District Court gave a verdict of
not guilty to Tatsuya Kato, former Seoul bureau chief of Sankei Shimbun. He
had been charged with defaming South Korea’s President Park Geun-hye. The
purpose of this study is to analyze the decision and examine suggestions for the
defamation laws in Japan and South Korea. Although I agree with the conclusion
of the decision, I cannot accept the part of verdict on defamation of Park
as a private figure.
Structural problems exist in South Korea’s defamation laws, and the criminal
prosecution of this case deviates from the international standards. Therefore, it
is natural that the United Nations has repeatedly recommended that the South
Korean government abolish criminal defamation. South Korea has to fundamentally
reform the criminal defamation law, which has suppressed critical speech.
Meanwhile, this case has considerable implications for Japan, where criminal
defamation is being applied. Japan should also join the international community
in pursuing abolition or a strict application of the criminal defamation law as it
has harmful effects on democracy as well as freedom of expression.
This paper clarifies when and how local foods（ i.e., Kyoudo Ryouri or Kyoudo
Syoku） became associated with the gender norms of “home cooking,” which
hold that women（ mothers, wives, and housewives） should take the leading role
in this area.
The main magazine that studied it was Shufu no Tomo （from the March
1917 issue to the July 1945 issue）. A discourse analysis was carried out on
information about foods associated with a particular region. The same analysis
was also carried out in Fujin Kurabu, which served as a comparative reference.
Past research has pointed out that local foods were historically and socially
constructed. According to these established theories, in the 1940s, the first
attention was paid to Kyoudo Syoku as substitute foods. In their high-growth
period, it became commonly accepted that local foods were gender-specific.
However, due to the fact that local foods had already been discovered as
early as the 1920s and 1930s in women’s magazines, and that they had been
positioned as a variation of“ home cooking,” this study indicated that they were
already gender-specific at that time. It was also found that readers’ contributions
to local foods also played an important role. For these reasons, the study
indicated that inclusion of local foods in women’s magazines was a process of
“objectification of culture,” participated in by the readers, rather than a process
of constructing an identity for those leaving their “local” or “regional” hometowns.