マス・コミュニケーション研究
Online ISSN : 2432-0838
Print ISSN : 1341-1306
ISSN-L : 1341-1306
89 巻
選択された号の論文の16件中1~16を表示しています
■特集 変容する「公共言論空間」を考える
  • 松井 修規
    2016 年 89 巻 p. 3-19
    発行日: 2016/07/31
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
     Freedom of the press now appears to be very close to a crisis. For the past few years, mass media has not been able to fulfill their role as a fourth estate. Two bills passed in 2013, despite repeated criticism: the Special Secrecy Act and the “My Number” Act. This paper analyzes how these two acts control and regulate the freedom of the press, in order to perform their designated purposes.   The Special Secrecy Act was legislated to control and protect classified information that is concerned with national defense, diplomatic relations, the activity of secret agents, and counter terrorism. However, what counts as classified information is very broad in scope and under administrative discretion, so it cannot be clearly defined by the act.   The “My Number” Act involves initiating a national ID numbering system. Its goals are making administrative procedures more efficient and effective for the government and more convenient for the people. The act applies to all registered residents of Japan, and this system is now expanding to all areas of our daily life. The government has a big plan for all residents to have a“ My Number Card,” which would affect every aspect of residents’ privacy.   It seems that we are being placed under the control of these acts, which will lead to a Surveillance Society. Due to this situation, the activities of mass media will be more observed and controlled. The mass media should make every endeavor to exercise the freedom of the press. For instance, they should practice investigative reporting by using FOIA, Open Data, or Big Data.
  • 伊藤 守
    2016 年 89 巻 p. 21-43
    発行日: 2016/07/31
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
     The spread of digital media has produced a new social realm, so that everyone can freely exchange information. In this paper, I will try to investigate how the digital media could change and create a new deliberative realm. This paper emphasizes the necessity for bringing the social and the substantial features of the realm together in order to grasp the transformation of the discourse space. In other words, the focus of analysis is the structural change in the material and social system of circulated information.   This change has two sides. The first one is the expansion of controlling the discourse space and social communication processes through that space. On the contrary, the second one could include an impossibility to control any of them.   The transformation of the space of discourse in social communication processes which was made by digital media has a historical significance. The reason is that it creates “an appearance” of space, which Hanna Arendt pointed out in her book - “The Human Condition” -. However, it might also bring the possibility of creating another phenomenon, an infection of feeling and contagion of affect. It is a process of activating affects.   Finally, this paper suggests that more research is needed to investigate the factors of affection and time to be able to grasp the singularities and transformation of the space of discourse.
  • 福田 充
    2016 年 89 巻 p. 45-60
    発行日: 2016/07/31
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    Along with the evolution of the media, risk society and globalization have made progress. Media technology manages the risks that result as these functions become means of control. With the progress of risk society and globalization,“ crisis management” has become an important theme in the world.   The problem with the National Security Agency (NSA) monitoring global communication has become apparent in the Snowden incident. Changes in media have also caused evolutions in intelligence activities: state power to monitor the world, social structure to preserve state secrets in the name of security, and risk management. Computers and the internet are supporting the social infrastructure.   Under the pretext of security (e.g., counterterrorism), monitoring technology has evolved and been introduced to society. As with intelligence activity, this technology is a technique for preventing potential risks that could create crises. Big data is used for economic marketing in corporate activities. It has been used as a tool for intelligence activities by political power.  The Arab Spring was described as “Revolution 2.0.” Public Diplomacy 2.0 is using social media (e.g., Twitter and Facebook). While bonding with intelligence activities, this development has affected international relations. In this way, media evolution and risk management society have progressed in the world.
■論文
  • 岡澤 康浩, 團 康晃
    2016 年 89 巻 p. 63-81
    発行日: 2016/07/31
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, we examine the role of literary taste among youth in Japan. Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of taste assumes that individuals are ranked according to their taste from the most refined to the most vulgar. Reading novels appears to be a perfect example of Bourdieu’s theory, as reading is taught directly in school. However, Bourdieu’s theory seems to be at odds with the Japanese situation, where influential literary critics have witnessed the ‘downfall’ of onceesteemed literature that, as they saw it, has now ceased to be relevant to society and become merely entertainment.   Even when the popularity of“ light novels” and“ cell phone novels” caused controversy in the 2000s regarding their quality due to the former’s anime/ manga-like characters and the latter’s unconventional style of writing and excessively sentimental plots, scholars and journalists countered the disparaging discourse on these supposedly “lowbrow” novels. Although Bourdieu assumes individuals to be taste-sensitive and taste to be a fundamental capital in every field of cultural practice, for the case of novel reading in Japan, this very assumption must be called into question.   Drawing from the 2010 Youth Culture and Communication Survey in Nerima (Tokyo), we explore whether literary taste is still relevant to the sense of distinction among young novel readers. We examine the difference between selfcategorized novel hobbyists and non-hobbyist novel readers, and we test whether what they read accounts for the gap between the two groups.   The findings show that the types of novels are relevant to their self-categorization. In particular, those who read classical novels are more likely to regard reading novels as a hobby and those who read cell-phone novels are less likely. Against literary critics’ skepticism about the cultural authority of literature in Japan, these findings indicate that even urban youth conform to the conventional hierarchy of literary taste.
  • 韓 永學
    2016 年 89 巻 p. 83-102
    発行日: 2016/07/31
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
     On December 17, 2015, the Seoul Central District Court gave a verdict of not guilty to Tatsuya Kato, former Seoul bureau chief of Sankei Shimbun. He had been charged with defaming South Korea’s President Park Geun-hye. The purpose of this study is to analyze the decision and examine suggestions for the defamation laws in Japan and South Korea. Although I agree with the conclusion of the decision, I cannot accept the part of verdict on defamation of Park as a private figure.   Structural problems exist in South Korea’s defamation laws, and the criminal prosecution of this case deviates from the international standards. Therefore, it is natural that the United Nations has repeatedly recommended that the South Korean government abolish criminal defamation. South Korea has to fundamentally reform the criminal defamation law, which has suppressed critical speech.   Meanwhile, this case has considerable implications for Japan, where criminal defamation is being applied. Japan should also join the international community in pursuing abolition or a strict application of the criminal defamation law as it has harmful effects on democracy as well as freedom of expression.
  • 村瀬 敬子
    2016 年 89 巻 p. 103-120
    発行日: 2016/07/31
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
     This paper clarifies when and how local foods( i.e., Kyoudo Ryouri or Kyoudo Syoku) became associated with the gender norms of “home cooking,” which hold that women( mothers, wives, and housewives) should take the leading role in this area.   The main magazine that studied it was Shufu no Tomo (from the March 1917 issue to the July 1945 issue). A discourse analysis was carried out on information about foods associated with a particular region. The same analysis was also carried out in Fujin Kurabu, which served as a comparative reference.   Past research has pointed out that local foods were historically and socially constructed. According to these established theories, in the 1940s, the first attention was paid to Kyoudo Syoku as substitute foods. In their high-growth period, it became commonly accepted that local foods were gender-specific.   However, due to the fact that local foods had already been discovered as early as the 1920s and 1930s in women’s magazines, and that they had been positioned as a variation of“ home cooking,” this study indicated that they were already gender-specific at that time. It was also found that readers’ contributions to local foods also played an important role. For these reasons, the study indicated that inclusion of local foods in women’s magazines was a process of “objectification of culture,” participated in by the readers, rather than a process of constructing an identity for those leaving their “local” or “regional” hometowns.
■2015年度秋季研究発表会 ワークショップ報告
■研究会の記録(2016年2月~ 2016年3月)
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