This study analyzes how a significant difference may result in stimulating
a recipient of the internal motivation for“ I think further deliberation is needed ”
through differences in the information framework regarding a given issue. Conventional
research on mass media effects focuses on the areas of recipient
recognition, image, and evaluation. However, in this study, midway through the
information process from recognition to evaluation, the focus is on processes
before an evaluation is formulated, and the impact on“ issue-deliberative motive
The study examined the issue of Japanese atomic power generation through
two types of information frameworks printed in Japanese newspapers. These
were read by 120 college students and the degree of stimulation for the issue
upon reading was measured. The study measured orientation towards: a） inner
reflection, b） external information, and c） dependence on other’s judgement.
The two informational frameworks were as follows: 1.“ Fact-oriented type
information,” which explained important factual areas of the issue objectively.
2.“ Prediction-influencing type information,” which predict the pros and cons of
changes in the individual’s daily life. As the result, despite the information covering
the same issue, the “prediction-influencing type information” was significantly
different in the orientation toward a） inner-reflection and b） external
On entering the twenty-first century, our media environment has been dramatically
changed by the development of digital computer technology and the
Internet, the spread of mobile information terminals, and the arrival of new
technology such as VR, AR, and IoT. How can we develop critical media theory
that has historically focused on mass media: newspapers, radio, and television?
How do we identify with the media, when the media is fragmented and pene trates our society, everyday life, and even our bodies? This paper tries to map
out some concepts in order to propose（ a） critical media theo（r ies） in the Post-
The paper explores four shifts along with the transformation of the media:
from the culture industry（ Horkheimer and Adorno） to the creative industries,
from Fordism （Gramsci） to Post-Fordism （the Regulation School）, from the
media as messages （McLuhan） to the meta-medium as software （Manovich）,
and from the disciplinary societies （Foucault） to the societies of control
（Deleuze）. How the nature of the media, the relationship between human
beings and environment, and the power relation in capitalism have been transformed
is discussed through examining these shifts.
Following the British Cultural Studies’ theoretical tradition, which has been
concerned with articulations of different, sometimes contradictory theories,
historical conjunctures, and contingencies, the paper proposes a new theorization
of power in the digital media through re-considering the central concept of
Marxist critical theory: ideology. It also discusses how we can articulate the
theory of ideology in the Left’s politics with the latest affective theory.
This paper argues for the need to draw on political and social theory in the
field of media and communication studies.
Hegemony is the main focus in this paper. This theoretical term was introduced
into media and communication studies in Japan through cultural studies
in the 1980s. Stuart Hall, who is the theoretical figurehead of cultural studies,
applied the concept of hegemony in media and communication studies. His theoretical
model, “encoding/decoding,” became one of the “standard” theories in
this field. However, since the decline of cultural studies, media and communication
studies in Japan has not concerned itself with the theoretical development
of this concept. This paper examines how new theories of hegemony and discourse were
developed by political theorist Ernest Laclau. As pioneers of the theory of radi
This research aims to reveal recent trends of journalism studies in Japan
Society for Studies in Journalism and Mass Communication, the Society in what
follows. I analyzed individual and collaborative presentations made during the
Society’s workshops, which take place twice a year in spring and fall, in addition
to peer-reviewed papers in the academic journal Mass Communication
Studies, which is published about twice a year. This investigation covers the
last 16 years from 2000 to 2015.
The analysis of the 394 presentations showed that:
① Eighty-four of them（ or 21％） are“ reporting/journalism related.”
② Graduate students made about two thirds （64％） of the “reporting/journalism
③ Twenty-nine presentations focus on “newspapers,” allowing them to have a
central position among the 4 major mass media.
The analysis of the 195 papers revealed that:
① Twenty-seven of them（ or 14％） are“ reporting/journalism related.”
② Graduate students wrote half of all papers.
③ Forty-four percent of all papers focus only on newspapers; 11％ only on tele
vision; and 7％ both on newspapers and television.
④ Half of all papers were written based on “examinations” of “reported content.”
This article examines the concentration of online news sources in China.
Using the Gini coefficient as the indicator, this article explores the degree of
concentration of online news sources, with the aim of establishing whether
online news can be seen as a tool to gain access to a wide range of print and
electronic news media.
Through a content analysis based on online news （2000 to 2012）, drawn
from the Sina News website（ a representative commercial portal in China）, this
article confirms that online news sources in China are indeed highly concentrated.
The findings of the study can be summarized in four areas. First, it showed
that the degree of concentration of the news sources changed over time. It
observed a comparatively lower degree of concentration of news sources in
2006. However, after 2006, news sources became increasingly concentrated due
to a rigid policy in China’s internet censorship. Second, the study identified
differences in the degree of concentration of news sources across news content.
News coverage of political issues and social problems showed a comparatively
lower degree of concentration, which can be explained by the changes in the
censorship of internet and traditional media. Third, it revealed that online news
reinforced the concentration of traditional media, by observing consistently high
centrality of news sources in Beijing, Guangdong and Shanghai. Finally, it identified
the political factor as a key factor influencing the degree of concentration
of online news sources. Given China’s firm control on online news websites, this
article argues that online news may not yet be an effective mode of gaining
access to a diversity of information, and is thus unable to bring about transformative
political change in China.
In newspaper articles and the publishing industry, there is an opinion that
a decrease in the sale of books affects an increase in the lending of books in
public libraries. However, there are few proof cases of the correlation and causality
between these variables. We sought to empirically study whether the two
variables truly demonstrate correlation or causality. We used data from 1970 to
The regression coefficient for the two variables of level data showed very
high significance. However, this was a case of“ spurious regression.” The“ spurious
regression” theory was proved by Granger and Newbold（ 1974）. We then
performed regression analysis using stationary time series data, and the data
after removing the time trend. We conducted a unit root test to derive the stationary
time series data. Additionally, we used the Hodrick-Prescott filter to
remove the time trend. Analysis of these data did not return a significant
regression coefficient. We conclude that the lending of books at the public
library has no effect on the sales of books.
The idea of youth differed significantly between the prewar generation and
the wartime generation, who sacrificed their adolescence in the Second World
War. The crucial gap in film reception—which was actualized in visual culture
in the early stages of the U.S. occupation period—can be observed by comparing
the discourses from those generations with Kurosawa Akira’s No Regrets
for Our Youth. The film was released at a political-cultural turning point in
Japanese society; and while the young generation commended this film, the prewar
generation criticized it. This paper aims to analyze why their evaluations
conflicted with each other, and explore how the representation of youth—
depicted by Kurosawa and embodied by star actress Hara Setsuko—functioned for the young audience.
The film’s reception by the audience is conditioned by its reading position
—here, a society living through a wartime experience. In addition, their social
attributes strongly influence the cultural meanings they receive from the
screen. In other words, there is a gap in film experience between those who are
allowed to sensibly watch films as amateurs and critics who are required to
analytically watch them as experts. This paper reveals that the exaggerated
and dynamic cinematic expression of youth by Kurosawa—which was prohibited
during the wartime period—is affectively connected to the young generation,
for whom youth was an impalpable idea. The “lost youth,” for them, was
visually reconstructed as tangible and concrete through moving images and a
lively cinematic body.
In contemporary society, many visual advertisements for film and TV are
embedded in the urban space. People can easily consume these secondary texts
before and after watching the primary texts, and visual experiences relating to
film and TV are mediated everywhere and all the time. Such experiences shape
contemporary media culture, and researchers have tried to understand the
logic of the reception of these texts. However, previous studies assumed the
ubiquity of these texts and neglected the historical process in which visual
advertisements came to be utilized. For understanding ubiquitously mediated
visual experiences, it is important to construct histories of these secondary
texts. From this viewpoint, this research investigates when and how exhibitors
started to utilize visual advertisements for newly released films, and analyzes
the reception of such materials.
Focusing the discussion on the oldest cinema trade magazines published
first around 1930—Kokusaieigashinbun and Kinemashuho—this paper shows
how from the late 1920s, film exhibitors began to embed visual advertisements
in urban space to attract emerging audiences on the move. During the 1920s,through the reformation of transportation systems, urban audiences could move
more freely among entertainment districts such as Asakusa, Ginza and Shinjuku.
Given this possibility of moving around, film exhibitors had to make an
effort to draw them to their own movie theaters. Consequently, on the one
hand, vicarious film experiences were mediated through such materials in the
context of time and space, without being related to actual watching practices;
while on the other, film experiences as expectation/memory were persistently
mediated before/during/after watching films by the relay of filmic images. In
these two ways, film experiences were redefined and became ubiquitously