マス・コミュニケーション研究
Online ISSN : 2432-0838
Print ISSN : 1341-1306
ISSN-L : 1341-1306
92 巻
選択された号の論文の23件中1~23を表示しています
■特集 新潟のメディア文化 ――ローカル・コンテンツの危機と可能性
  • 原田 健一
    2018 年 92 巻 p. 3-21
    発行日: 2018/01/31
    公開日: 2018/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    The political, social and cultural contexts of television documentaries produced

    by local stations are multi-layered. The contents are determined by not

    only regional but also national agencies. This paper will focus on documentaries

    on the great fire of Itoigawa, geishas in Furumachi and marginal settlements,

    all of which are produced by one of Niigata’s local stations, TeNY. Comparing

    the original version and a variant broadcast as content for the NNN documentary

    series on a national network, we will analyse the process through which

    the contents are reorganized.

  • 公野 勉
    2018 年 92 巻 p. 23-39
    発行日: 2018/01/31
    公開日: 2018/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    The author is a researcher and a person in charge of content production.

    In recent years, there has been an increase in content that intentionally serves

    regional development and an increase in content that contemplates the establishment

    of local sacred sites. By taking the content that the author was in charge

    of directly as subjects for fieldwork, the structure and the achievement of the

    four types of content work are reported, and the merits and demerits of all four

    are analysed. The four types include the centre-to-region delivery type, the selfhelp

    support type established through investment, the region-centre linked

    type, and the central production plus regional capital type. Moreover, as conclusions

    are drawn from the field data, the basic model for regional development is

    presented with the following components: a) tourist attractions to be provided

    as regional contributions, b) human resources to be supplied regionally (e.g., a

    creator such as a cartoonist located in a regional area whose talent was discovered

    through a contest, and the business producer who set up the contest), c)

    capital to be offered by regional areas, and d) a central area that spreads

    regional information, using central media and production capabilities as filters

    (e.g., to produce content such as movies based on regional information, and to incorporate them in central media). As a result, this paper discusses and concludes

    that the ultimate potential of regional communities lies in their role as

    ‘the place to locate talent and to deliver and supply them to the central community’.

  • 坂田 文彦
    2018 年 92 巻 p. 41-46
    発行日: 2018/01/31
    公開日: 2018/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

     The comics market (fanzine exhibition and sale) known as ‘Gataket’ that

    started in Niigata in 1983 can be described as a typical local business. Since

    1983, various local manga and anime businesses developed, such as the ‘Niigata

    Manga Competition’, which is an innovative local government-led business, and

    the founding of the ‘JAM Nihon Anime Manga Training School’. Gataket has

    deepened its ties with such businesses every time. In 2011, ‘Gatafest’, a manga

    and anime festival held by the Niigata-shi, JAM and ‘Gataket’ was established

    and in 2013, the ‘Niigata Anime Manga Museum’ and ‘The Niigata City Manga

    House’ were established. These undergird the changeover of Niigata’s manga

    and anime business, and highlight how the cooperation among the industry, academia,

    and the government has become the foothold for business expansion.

    This is the fruit of collaboration and wide connection within the anime and

    manga industry, which has been fostered through the accumulation of knowledge

    and skill seen in Gatakketto’s 34 years of history and cooperation among

    local businesses. Therefore, for a business featuring local content originating

    from regional areas, a steady and persistent effort like that of Gataket can play

    a significant role.

  • 古賀 豊
    2018 年 92 巻 p. 47-63
    発行日: 2018/01/31
    公開日: 2018/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

     This paper pertains to the symposium ‘Media culture of Niigata Prefecture:

    The crisis and potential of local contents’ held at the Japan Society for Studies

    in Journalism and Mass Communication conference in the spring of 2017. Here,

    the population problem of the region was quantitatively analysed, as it is

    regarded as a crisis that affects numerous fields, such as politics, the economy,

    daily living and culture. This was achieved by referring to specific discussions

    that other academics have developed on the topic of Niigata’s media and

    regional culture.

      Firstly, in order to investigate the actual situation of the progressive aging

    and decreasing population in the region, an age structure index—more specifically,

    the relationship between the total population and the dependent population(

    non-working-age) population, and the relationship between the child population

    index and the aging population index, which are both subdivisions of the

    dependent population—was analysed.

      Secondly, to examine the relationships among each region located in rural

    and central areas of the metropolitan, the correlation between the outflow and

    the inflow population was explored, as it is assumed to be plainly reflecting various

    maldistributions of capital, including cultural capital.

■ 論文
  • 小川 明子
    2018 年 92 巻 p. 67-85
    発行日: 2018/01/31
    公開日: 2018/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

     The aim of this paper is to examine the Deliberative Organ (or Council)

    for broadcast programmes (Bangumi Shingikai), a statutory advisory body

    established by each TV and radio station in accordance with Japan’s broadcast

    act. Together with Programme Standards, the Deliberative Council is a significant

    part of ‘Japan’s Regulation Model for Broadcasting’ that ensures the appropriateness

    of the broadcast programmes. Designed to be self-regulatory, the

    council enables broadcasters and audiences with high esteem to discuss the

    quality of the programmes and consider whether they are appropriate for

    broadcasting. Despite its importance, little research attention has been given to

    the practice of this system. In reflecting upon the history of the system and the

    gender and occupational ratio of committee members, this paper focuses on

    how terrestrial commercial broadcasting stations have managed the council.

    Surveys were also conducted among these stations in 2016, and the results indicate that the system is not fully regarded as a system of self-regulation among

    broadcasters, although it is generally valued from the point of programme

    improvement.

  • 梅田 拓也
    2018 年 92 巻 p. 87-104
    発行日: 2018/01/31
    公開日: 2018/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the perspective of Niklas Luhmann’s

    mass media theory through interpreting his works. Luhmann constructed

    a mass media theory which described mass communication as a social

    system. Some previous studies have paid attention to the significance of his

    theory and attempted to apply it in different empirical studies while others

    have criticized his theory because he abstracted and confirmed the practical

    problems of journalism. However, it has yet to be shown what problem in

    media studies Luhmann himself attempted to solve. This paper analyses the

    perspective of Luhmann’s theory by focusing on the relationship between his

    theory and radical constructivism. Radical constructivism is an epistemological

    media theory that has been popular in German media studies since the 1990s,

    and Luhmann also frequently referred to it in his works about mass media. As

    a result,( 1) this paper clarifies that the radical constructivism theory criticized

    journalism practices in terms of epistemological problems, and thereby hindered

    journalism and its social function. Thus, media theorists who sympathized with

    radical constructivism attempted to fill this divergence of the radical constructivism

    theories and practices of journalism. In addition, (2) this paper argues

    that Luhmann also attempted to solve the problem. He avoided the epistemological

    and normative discussion of journalism and redefined the function of

    mass media in the theory of a functionally differentiated society. In conclusion,

    this paper demonstrates the significance of the social theory in media studies

    by interpreting the perspective of Luhmann’s media theory.

  • 鍵本 優
    2018 年 92 巻 p. 105-123
    発行日: 2018/01/31
    公開日: 2018/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

     Digital games occupy a big position in today’s media culture. The early

    Japanese culture of home digital games partly developed with content intended

    to scare the player. The frightening experiences that are involved in playing

    such games have been often talked about by the players, even if the games were

    not necessarily of the horror genre. However, conventional Japanese digital

    game studies cannot explain these social facts of the frightening experiences

    sufficiently.

      The purpose of this paper is to deal with the theoretical problem mentioned

    above. By considering the frightening experiences in Japanese games

    concretely, this paper submits a novel and effective theoretical and cultural

    interpretation of the experience in digital games as media. It is a ‘fear not to

    fade away’ arising from gaming practices that this paper notices in particular.

      This paper is written with the following method and procedure. Firstly,

    this paper checks the framework of the conventional theory of experiences in

    digital games( Section 1). Secondly, the problem of this framework is examined

    in detail by way of discussing the frightening experiences( Section 2). Then, in

    order to manage this problem, this paper considers the concrete cases of playing

    AVGs(Adventure Games) and RPGs(Role Playing Games) in the Japanese

    game culture (Section 3). Finally, conclusions are derived from the previous

    discussion and considerations( Section 4).

      The conclusions of this paper are as follows. Firstly, the media theory of

    experiences in digital games should pay attention to the player’s mental, bodily

    and sensorial self-transfer to the media. Secondly, in Japanese society around

    1990, the cultural development of digital games with many narrative elements

    (in particular in AVGs and RPGs) necessarily produced the possibilities of

    “being shocked” experience.

  • 佐藤 潤司
    2018 年 92 巻 p. 125-144
    発行日: 2018/01/31
    公開日: 2018/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    In this paper, I will analyse the news over the caricature of Muhammad

    drawn on the cover of the special edition of Charlie Hebdo in 2015, and consider

    whether the Japanese newspapers played a role as leaders of ‘freedom of

    expression’.

      In Japan, three of the seven main newspapers did not publish the caricature

    and one of the four that published it was protested by Islamic groups and

    published an apology article.

      When I analysed the articles of the seven newspapers by using a text-mining

    approach, I found three problems. Primarily, the contents and attitude of

    the newspapers did not necessarily emphasize ‘freedom of expression’. Secondly,

    the evaluation process for the caricature and the criteria for publication or nonpublication

    of the caricature were not shown. Thirdly, the newspaper that apologized

    for publishing the image did not clarify the reason for the apology, and

    the other newspapers did not report the news that instigated a discussion over

    the rightness or wrongness of the publication. For these reasons, it is hard to

    say that Japanese newspapers played the role.

      In addition, it can be pointed out that the three newspapers which did not

    publish the caricature either do not have a certain criterion or did not apply the

    criterion. Finally, with respect to the newspaper that published the apology

    article,the phenomenon known as atrophy of the news was seen.

  • 松下 峻也
    2018 年 92 巻 p. 145-163
    発行日: 2018/01/31
    公開日: 2018/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

     In March 1954, when the United States tested a hydrogen bomb over the

    Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, the Daigo Fukuryu Maru, a Japanese fishing

    boat, was exposed to the radiation. The crews of the boat suffered from

    ‘acute illness’, such as burns or loss of hair, within a short period of time, and

    one of them died from leukaemia in September same year. This tragedy was

    widely reported by the radio, the newspapers, the newsreels and the photo 

    journalism magazines, and ever since has been known as ‘the Daigo Fukuryu

    Maru Incident’ in Japanese society. Yet, other Japanese fishing boats, the residents

    of the Marshall Islands and the US soldiers who participated in the 1953

    tests were also exposed to ‘nuclear fallout’ at that time. In such cases, the physical

    effect of the radiation started to emerge much later, in the form of diseases

    such as cancer. These effects, unlike the ‘acute illness’ of the Daigo Fukuryu

    Maru crews, had been overlooked for decades by most of the media, with the

    exception of very few TV programmes which documented their suffering. However,

    these cases came to receive public interest after the Fukushima Daiichi

    Nuclear Power Station Accident in 2011 and the following radioactive contamination

    of large areas. It is in this context that the handful of past TV programmes

    on the subject became important; in hindsight, by confronting the

    ‘delayed effect’, they were already describing the wider context of the radiation

    exposure of the ‘the Incident’. In that sense, these TV programmes, stored

    and now open to the public as part of the archive of television; are important

    resources not only for the re-examination of the incident; they also provide

    significant implications for post-2011 Japanese society.

  • 太田 美奈子
    2018 年 92 巻 p. 165-182
    発行日: 2018/01/31
    公開日: 2018/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper examines the reception of early television in rural Japan through

    Sai village in the Aomori prefecture. While the first television station in Aomori

    was founded in 1959, most Aomori residents had previously accessed the television

    signal from NHK Hakodate( Hokkaido), established in 1957. The small fishing

    village, Sai village, had the highest television penetration rate in Aomori at

    that time and was known as a ‘TV village’. Why did the people of Sai village

    want television? What effect did this desire have? This paper aims to answer

    these questions by tracing the evolution from the first arrival of television in

    Sai village in 1957 to the wide spread availability of television in Aomori in

    1959.

      Interviews and archival documents show that educational motivations, and

    specifically the desire to show the outside world to the children, were funda

    mental to their choices. Through television education in school, the children’s

    education flourished and developed into television reception that went beyond

    educational purposes. Matsunoyama village in Niigata prefecture also had a

    similar television reception as Sai village. Sai village represents a key point of

    reference for television reception in rural Japan in that its remoteness preserved

    television’s function as an educational visual aid. This paper goes beyond

    the urban-centred narratives about early television reception by accounting for

    the fact that villagers saw a potential for television beyond leisure in education,

    and by exploring how the affirmation of television as leisure also opened up

    children to outside worlds.

      The children’s reactions were in line with a McLuhan-esque view of television

    and what happened in Sai village points to the key potentials of television.

    This paper shows how rural areas had a rich television reception during the

    early days of television. In addition, this paper represents the first steps

    towards understanding an era in which television reception forms were still

    mixed.

  • 花田 史彦
    2018 年 92 巻 p. 183-202
    発行日: 2018/01/31
    公開日: 2018/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

     Our task here is to analyse the remarks of Iwasaki Akira( 1903-81), a film

    critic, as a case study of the historical investigations into the problem of how

    the images of ‘mass’ were formed and what role aspects of media like films

    played in the course of formation of mass society in Japan.

      In Chapter 1, we point out that Iwasaki was a person who had been working

    on the ‘mass’ problems throughout his life, who had also been regarded as a

    man of resistance from wartime to the period of occupation.

      In Chapter 2, we analyse Iwasaki’s pre-war view of ‘mass’ and made it

    clear that he recognized mass as a target capable of enlightenment for social

    reform.

      Chapter 3 throws light on the early post-war views of Iwasaki’s ‘mass’ and

    made his sense of enlightened obligation clear.

      Section 1 of Chapter 4 treats Imamura Taihei’s critical comments on the

    proposals of Iwasaki to enlighten the ‘mass’, which can be seen as a transitional

    view to the phrase ‘mass as the core’ by Tsurumi Shunsuke and Matsumoto

    Toshio. In Section 2, we compare Tsurumi’s thought of the mass (neither passive

    nor monolithic) with Iwasaki’s pre-war sense of obligation towards mass

    enlightenment. In Section 3, we make a comparison of Iwasaki with Matsumoto,

    who talked of the possibility of anti-establishment movement among mass society,

    and pointed out that Iwasaki saw negative inclinations towards Fascism in it.

      To conclude: Iwasaki never stopped talking about the ‘mass’, the images of

    which were successively questioned and revised by succeeding generations of

    polemicists like Imamura, Tsurumi, Matsumoto. Iwasaki’s works thus performed

    should be one of the factors in developing the image of the responsible

    mass at the time of the advent of Japanese mass society.

■ 2017年度春季研究発表会 ワークショップ報告
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