The existence of hydroxide ion and inner water of colloidal calcium carbonate was confirmed, and those properties were investigated. It was confirmed that one particle of the colloidal calcium carbonate was a solitary crystal of the calcite from the TEM observation and the ED measurement. A surface hydroxide ion, a crystal internal hydroxide ion, and crystal inner water were evaluated from the FT-IR measurement and the XRD measurement. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained. It was confirmed that a surface hydroxide ion and crystal inner water existed in colloidal calcium carbonate. It has been realized that the surface hydroxide ion is a free type hydroxide ion without hydrogen bond among them. Moreover, it was suggested that the surface hydroxide ion be a base property from exchange adsorptivity.
In case of extrusion moulding of particle reinforced cementitious materials, the stress condition of shear stress and extruding pressure in tapered barrel is required to predict extrusion characteristics of it under various material conditions and machinery ones. In the first place, experiments with various kinds of substances and mix proportions were carried out, and extruding pressure and single shear characteristics, namely cohesion and coefficient of internal friction as two indicators were obtained. From the relationships between shear stress and extruding pressure, plastic processing law under a constant machinery condition was clarified. Secondly, the similar experiment was carried out with various kinds of die opening geometries as machinery condition. The concept of effective thickness was adopted as the evaluation method of plastic processing. The results of experiments lead to propose a comprehensive plastic processing law. It was verified that extruding pressure under various conditions of materials and machine could be estimated through this new law.
Solid solutions containing aniline between phenylphosphonate zirconium and zirconium phosphate, Zr [(O3PC6H5) x (O3POH) 2-x] yC6H5NH2·nH2O, were prepared under the hydrothermal conditions. Crystallinity and specific surface area of the products were improved much by the addition of aniline and organic derivatives of zirconium phosphate with specific surface area > 200m2·g-1 were obtained. The products were also found to have higher selectivity to oxygen than that to nitrogen, unlike zeolites and active carbons.