During the survey of rust fungi in Jilin Province, China, we found Ligustrum obtusifolium (Oleaceae) heavily infected with a rust fungus, Aecidium klugkistianum in the Changchun area. The life cycle of A. klugkistianum was elucidated via field observations and inoculation experiments. This rust fungus produces uredinial and telial stages on Cleistogenes hackelii (Gramineae). These stages morphologically belong to Puccinia and are different from other fungi on Cleistogenes in terms of the size of the urediniospores. The new combination, P. klugkistiana is proposed for this rust fungus based on aecial stage name, A. klugkistianum. Its epitype specimen is designated.
Recent taxonomic and molecular studies on Tuber in China have revealed several new species. Here we propose Tuber polymorphosporum and T. baoshanense as new species. These species are described from Yunnan Province and differ in a combination of morphological features including ascoma color, peridium structure and ascospore shape and size. These two new taxa have phylogenetic affinity to T. latisporum and T. alboumbilicum, respectively, described from the southwest China. Phylogenetic placements of these novel Tuber species in the Latisporum group are presented here.
Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of five isolates of Cephalotrichum and Sagenomella from various samples collected while dismantling the Takamatsuzuka Tumulus stone chamber were found to represent Cephalotrichum verrucisporum and Sagenomella striatispora. In addition to these, one isolate from the ceiling stone surface in the adjacent small room of the Kitora Tumulus was assignable to Sagenomella griseoviridis. Colonization on biodeteriorated plaster and stone walls as substrata or habitats of these fungi is noteworthy. Physiologically Sagenomella isolates solubilized CaCO3 and may be involved in the deterioration of the plaster walls inside the stone chamber. Cephalotrichum verrucisporum is a new addition to Japan.
The genus Pseudopestalotiopsis comprises only seven species: Ps. camelliae, Ps. cocos, Ps. ignota, Ps. indica, Ps. kubahensis, Ps. simitheae, and Ps. theae. While surveying Pseudopestalotiopsis in Vietnam during 2013 and in Myanmar during 2015, we found 19 strains, including two novel Pseudopestalotiopsis species, based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal RNA, β-tubulin, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene region data sets. These new species are named Pseudopestalotiopsis myanmarina and Ps. vietnamensis. Among 13 strains identified as Ps. myanmarina, seven produced sexual morphs with similar morphological characteristics to those of “Pestalosphaeria,” indicating that sexual morphs of Pseudopestalotiopsis and Pestalotiopsis are common. Among the asexual morphs, one strain of Pseudopestalotiopsis had conidia with three pale-pigmented median cells, which is the same character found in Pestalotiopsis. In this study, we distinguished Pseudopestalotiopsis based on molecular analyses, whereas the results were unclear according to the morphological analyses.
Three fungal endophytes from the genus Nodulisporium were studied for volatile organic compound (VOC) production. All three fungi grew on a wide range of carbon substrates ranging from simple sugars to waste biomass sources. The fungi synthesized a number of long and short-chain VOCs, including eucalyptol; 1-butanol, 3-methyl; 1-octen-3-ol; and benzaldehyde, all with potential applications as biofuel or flavor compounds. As culture temperature decreased, average VOC carbon chain length increased, especially for VOCs associated with fatty acid metabolism. The results provide a template for controlling synthesis of desired VOCs through selection of species and culturing conditions.
Based on morphological and molecular analysis, we describe the new species Geastrum verrucoramulosum, discriminated from other species in the section Exareolata mainly by an elongated, verrucose, branched stipe. This new species is currently known from two forest locations in central and southwestern Amazonia. Species description, images, and taxonomic discussion of both morphological and molecular data are provided.
Russula section Foetentinae is a group of ectomycorrhizal symbiont fungi that are integral in maintaining biodiversity in diverse ecosystems. Identification and accurate classification of these fungi has proven challenging because of significant similarities in morphology, particularly among fruiting bodies. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the diversity and taxonomy of Russula section Foetentinae in Korea using both phylogenetic analysis and morphological characteristics. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using internal transcribed spacer sequences and compared against key morphological characteristics. Our results reassigned several taxa and established important ecological relationships among closely related species. The phylogenetic analysis produced strong support for seven species, two of which were previously identified, one was a new record to Korea, and one was an undescribed species which we propose to name R. catillus sp. nov. Russula section Foetentinae separated into four clades when molecular and morphological data were combined. An important finding of the study was that several taxonomic assignments based on morphological characters were inconsistent with more reliable molecular data. This study highlights the need for a genetic database that can be easily accessed and used in conjunction with morphological data in order to better resolve the evolutionary history of this important fungal group.
Parauncinula, a genus belonging to the Erysiphaceae (powdery mildew family), consisted of only two species, P. curvispora and P. septata, which are distributed only in China and Japan (endemic to East Asia). This genus split from other powdery mildew genera at an early stage of evolution, and thus has been considered as one of the most ancestral genera in the Erysiphales. Phylogenetic analyses using rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and 28S rRNA gene sequences indicated that one of the species, P. septata, is divided into three distinct genotypes. The ITS sequence similarities between the three genotypes were 96% or less, suggesting species level differences among the genotypes. Combined with detailed morphological observations, P. septata s. lat. is divided into three species, viz. P. septata s. str., P. polyspora, and P. uncinata. These species are clearly defined by morphological characteristics such as the number of ascospores per ascus and morphology of appendages, as well as DNA sequences. A key to the species of Parauncinula is also presented.
Although interspecific variation in the response of ectomycorrhizal fungi to salinity has been examined, knowledge of the intraspecific variation is limited. We evaluated the salinity tolerance of Cenococcum geophilum isolated from ectomycorrhizal roots of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) from eight coastal pine forests in Japan. The identity of the obtained isolates was ensured by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Mycelial growth of 56 C. geophilum isolates was examined on modified Melin-Norkrans medium containing NaCl at one of six concentrations (0–400 mM). The mycelial growth usually decreased at a NaCl concentration >100 mM and decreased significantly at 400 mM. For mycelial growth, no significant site × NaCl concentration interaction was observed. However, a significant interaction existed between isolate and NaCl concentration at each site, and some isolates (e.g., from Aichi and Shizuoka) showed no growth inhibition even at 400 mM NaCl. The results indicate that C. geophilum in coastal areas is salinity-tolerant, but the tolerance varies among isolates between sites and even within a site. Thus, salinity-tolerant isolates should be selected to examine their effects on the establishment and survival of woody plants in coastal areas that are occasionally exposed to high salinity.
Cornus spp. are commonly cultivated in parks or gardens as ornamental plants. Powdery mildew is one of the most important diseases of these plant species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the causal agent Erysiphe pulchra showed that this species is divided into two genetic groups, viz. one found on C. florida and C. kousa, and another one on C. controversa, both apart from each other. Combined with detailed morphological examinations, E. pulchra s. str. and E. cornicola nom. nov. are proposed for the respective fungal groups.