Metallic ions in the blood and the urine of the patient suffered from so-called “Minamata Disease” which is an encephalopathia of unknown cause were examined. Quantitative analysis of the manganese was investigated in patients as well as in cats which showed similar symptoms to the human. Furthermore, fish and shellfish obtained from the bay in the district of Minamata were also exmined. It was found that the amount of manganese was increased in the blood and urine of patients and cats, in liver of cats, in fish and in shellfish as compared to the control group s. It might be considered from the above results that the pathogenesis of “Minamata Disease” may be related to manganese intake by human and animals through fish and shellfish taken from the sea along this particular parts of the sea-coast.
We reported that we had recognised the increase of Penicillin resistant micrococci pyogenes by the studies on the bacterial flora in the upper respiratory tracts for ten years from 1948 to 1957, but this increase generally has been considered as a results of the cross-infection of Penicillin resistant strains. However we have suspected whether it was truely the result of the cross-infection, or by mutation of Penicillin-sensitive strains and other mechanism, therefore we performed inoculation test to the nasal mucous membranes of volunteers by micrococci pyogenes. The next method was taken for inoculation test; namely (I) inoculation of the strains cultured in liquid media to the noses of volunteers only one time, (II) inoculation of physiolgical saline suspension of the strains to the noses of volunteers daily for one week, (III) direct inoculation from the noses of the carriers of micrococci pyogenes to the noses of volunteers, etc. The results of the test did not come out as we expected. These results, we consider, show the cross-infection of Penicillin-resistant micrococci pyogenes do not happen so easily.
This time, we studied on penicillin resistance, and bacteriophage-typing of 554 strains of micrococci pyogenes isolated from the noses and the throats of the healthy students of various schools and from those of various diseased, the infected lesions of various diseases, and furthermore from the organs of autopsy-cases, and also we studied on the same examination for micrococci pyogenes isolated from the noses and throats of 425 students of a certain primary school at the outbreak of scarlet fever. The results were as follows: (1) It was recognized that micrococci pyogenes isolated from the noses of adults belonged mainly to the third group, but micrococci pyogenes isolated from the noses of children, to the second group. (2) Non-typable strains among the penicillin sensitive strains were mainly isolated from the noses and throats. (3) The third group 7/+ and 42E/+ were mainly isolated from suppurative lesions among penicillin resistant strains. (4) Both penicillin sensitive or resistant strains isolated from Impetigo contagiosa staphylogenes belonged mainly to the second group, 71. (5) Micrococci pyogenes indigenous to the nasal mucous membranes seemed to be quite different from the strains isolated from suppurative lesions, but the nasal mucous membranes of children seemed to have close relation to Impetigo contagiosa staphylogenes.
A comparative study was made on the clinical picture of the kidney, its functions as revealed on renal clearance, and its histological picture disclosed on renal biopsy, in 93 cases of renal disease and hypertension, with these results obtained: (1) Clinical and histological pictures compared: There was a serious change or changes produced in the histological picture of the kidneys in most of those cases where the urine contained protein at concentrations of 5‰ or more, the maximum specific gravity of the urine did not exceed 1014, the systolic pressure was 175mm/Hg or more, the retinal finding was III degree or higher Keith-Wagener, or an abnormal ECG was given. The histological change of the kidney was greatly varied in severity-very slight in some cases, far advanced in others, and so on-in those cases in which the clinical symptoms were less serious than those manifested in the former cases. (2) Clearance and histological findings compared: The change produced in the histological picture of the kidneys was slight or moderate in the majority, and serious in some few of those cases where sodium thiosulfate clearance (Cthio) was 55cc/min. or more and sodium paraaminohippurate clearance (CPAH) 400cc/min. or more. In cases where the rate was 54-25cc/min. for the former clealance and 399-150cc/min. for the latter, a large variety of the histological changes-slight in some cases, and severe, in others and so forth-was seen occurring in the kidneys. In cases where the rate was 24cc/min. or less for the former and 149cc/min. for the latter, the histological change occurring in the kidneys was severe in most cases and mild or moderate in a few. It was thus seen in cases of renal disease and hypertension that the clinical condition related to the kidneys or the efficiency of the renal function was reflected in the histological picture of the organ in those of the cases where those clinical condition was far advanced severe or the renal functions were found seriously damaged on renal function tests. But the clinical condition related to the kidneys or the efficiency of the renal function was seldom or never reflected in its histological picture in those of the cases in which those clinical condition or its function was not damaged or mildly or moderately damaged. I hope that the result of this study will be of some clinical use in disclosing any possible histological change of the kidney in patients under diagnosis or treatment for renal disease and hypertension.
It is known that poisoning by asari and kaki, which are thought to contain a kind of biogenetic amine, causes a typical acute yellow liver atrophy. In this study, with observation on its development, experimental livercirrhosis has been produced in 30 mice, by intraperitoneal injection of one forth lethal dosis of this poison, every 5 days, with total 45 injections. With one injection, central necrosis and degeneration of medial zone of the liver acinus were observed, which were completely recovered within 5 days, but in cases with 3 or 6 injections, these changes were not recovered 5 days after the last injection. With about 9th injection, the mice became exhausted, resulting in loss of body weight and in some cases, in death. In this stage, histological examination of the liver revealed the beginning of central fibrosis, with marked fatty infiltration but few cellular infiltration. After the 12th injection, it was observed fibrosis progressed, with contrary decreasing of fat contents, showing various formation of pseudoacini. In all cases of 45 injections, there was seen typical liver cirrhosis, histologically revealing bands of connective tissue surrounding the parenchyma, with mixture of destroyed and regenerated tissue. In a case, the surface of the liver was uneven with several large protruding nodules, makroscopically resembling hepatoma, but microscopically revealing compensatory hyperplasia. The liver cell showed marked atypia, suggesting strongly the possible way to produce hepatoma. There have been many experiments to produce liver cirrhosis, but in this original study, experimental liver cirrhosis was made in every case, by substance similar to biogenetic amines which are known to have intimate relation with autointoxication. This study will provide a new idea to the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis in human being.
An analysis of various interfering conditions in polarogram formation was conducted as a preliminary study of the polarographic characteristics of cancerous gastric juice and the following results were obtained. 1) Changes in polarographic waves induced by pH adjustment. When the polarogram of gastric juice was observed using Co++ and Co+++ as electrolytes, it was noted that in anacidic specimen, marked variations in polarogram formation were present. Likewise, when specimens were left standing at room temperature, the variations were also distinct. As regards the influence induced by pH adjustment, it was noted that variations in polarogram decreased in the descending order: cancer>anacidic>acidic with the cancerous polarogram showing the highest degree of lability. 2) On the influence of degree of viscosity of gastric juice. There was no correlation between the viscosity of gastric juice and its polarographic wave height. In other words, the influence was negligible and can be disregarded. 3) On the influence of saliva. When a large amount of saliva is added to the gastric aspirate, the polarogram in Co++ shows a lowering in W1, while the reduction voltage in W2 shows a tendency to shift to the negative side which is due to the polarographic activity of the saliva itself. However, the said influence may readily be prevented by avoiding saliva contamination when gastric juice is aspirated and by using Co+++ electrolyte. 4) On the influence of blood and bile. Both blood and bile present a double wave similar to that of gastric juice. Hence, when both or either are added to gastric juice the resulting wave height changed in polarograms appears as an average total of the mixture. However, since the samples are highly colored in this case, the influence of blood and bile may also disregarded. It is likewise advisable to use Co+++ electrolyte. Summarizing the above, it may be concluded that in the studies of the characteristics of polarographic wave heights in cancerous gastric juice, interference by pH adjustment, juice viscosity, and contamination by saliva, blood and bile are negligible and may be disregarded.