Ascending aortas, abdominal aortas and pulmonary arteries were collected from 36 cadavers of old men, and amounts of water content, total nitrogen, reduced substance, hexosamine, sulfuric radical, metachromasic substance, cholesterol, Na, Ca and P, all of which are fractions easily extractable with water contained in the walls of these arteries, were determined to seek relation between arteriosclerosis and change in these values, with the following results: 1) There was no remarkable difference between the ascending and abdominal aorta in the values of total nitrogen, hexosamine, and reduced substance, and these values were lower in the pulmonary artery than in the two aortas. No significant difference in sulfuric radical was observed between the three. 2) Water content was found decreased in sclerotic part as compared with non-sclerotic part. 3) Total nitrogen, hexosamine, reduced substance, sulfuric radical and metachromasic substance were all decreased in sclerotic part. 4) Cholesterol value was increased in sclerotic part. 5) In sclerotic part, Ca content was increased, but Na content was contrarily decreased. 6) In sclerotic part, total P and acid-soluble P were found increased, but change in inorganic p and lipid P was indistinct. 7) Significant correlation was observed between hexosamine and sulfuric radical in arterial wall which were determined by the acid hydrolysis method.
1) Since several years ago, we have emphasized the existence of “Splanchnico-adrenocortical system”, besides “Hypophyso-adrenocortical system”. In order to confirm this theory, the following study was performed. In parallel with the estimation of the arterial blood pressure and adrenal blood flow (adrenal venous canulation and drop counter method), 17-OHCS levels (the modified Nelson-Samuels' method) were determined in the dog adrenal venous blood under various experimental conditions. 2) Corticoid output increased definitely during or immediately after the faradisation of the splanchnic nerve. It was confirmed that the splanchnic faradisation exerted the direct stimulative effect on the adreno-cortical function. Although the adrenal blood flow usually increased following the splanchnic faradisation, such an increased adrenal flow were not always accompanied by the increased corticoid output. Increased blood flow is regarded as the sum of the excitatory effects of all the vasomotors in the splanchnic nerve. 3) By the foradisation of the vagal nerve no effects were observed on the adrenal blood flow nor on the corticoid output. 4) Single intravenous ACTH increased adrenal blood flow remarkably, without significant elevation of the blood pressure. Its mechanism was discussed. Corticoid secretion was not enhanced by intravenous ACTH under surgical stress. 5) Adrenal cortex appears to have the regulatory mechanisms to maintain corticoid secretion level under the considerable fluctuation of the adrenal flow. When the flow reduces extremely, tremendous increase of corticoid concentration was observed.
In 35 patients with the so-called gall duct syndrome, in whom no stone was roentgenologically detected in the biliary system and neither inflammatory findings, gall sand, nor bacillus (by 48 h. culture in blood agar) was observed in the duodenal fluid, roentgenography with Biligrafin was made to examine the bladder and duct as an entity. The appearance of these organs was roentgenographically classified into three types: tonic, flaccid and normal. Next in each type the therapeutic effects of various agents were examined and the improvement in the treatment was attempted. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The most frequent abnormality was the prolongation of the common duct visible time accompanied with the dysfunction of the gall bladder contraction which was found in 34% of the patients. Other abnormalities were, in the order of the frequencies: dilatations of the hepatic duct (29%), gall bladder (26%), and common duct (23%), insufficient cholecystography (17%), and abnormally shaped (14%), contracted (9%) and ptosed gall bladder (3%). 2. There was a parallelism between the dilatation of the hepatic duct and that of the common duct. However, the prolongation of the common duct visible time did not always parallel its dilatation. In no case with the dilated gall bladder the prolongation of the common duct visible time was observed. No correlation was found either between the dilatation of the common duct and that of the gall bladder or between the disturbance of the contracting function or morphological abnormality of the gall bladder and the density of its shadow on the roentgenogram. 3. With special reference to the chronological change in the density of the roentgenographical shadow of the common duct, dyskinesia was classified. The frequencies were: tonic 34%, flaccid 26%, and normal 40%. 4. Therapeutic effects. A cholagogue (magnesium sulfate solution) and choleretic (dehydrocholic acid) were effective both in the tonic and flaccid types, especially in the latter. No effect was observed in the normal type. Antibiotics (Mycilin, Chloromycetin) were not effective in any type. Autonomic nervous system blockades (Buscopan, atropin) were effective only in the tonic type. Chlorpromazine or meprobamate was effective in the normal type and not so effective in the tonic and flaccid types. Grelan and barbiturates showed no specific therapeutic effect in any type.
Changes in volume and distribution of body water and changes of body composition in chronic renal failure still remain unclarified, but the knowledge on these problems is essential in the treatment and pathologic physiology of chronic renal failure. In this study, total body water, extracellular water and circulating plasma volume were determined by dilution method in fourteen patients suffering from chronic renal failure and six healthy men for control. From the results obtained, fat mass, lean body mass, intracellular water, cell solids and mineral mass were calculated. The summary and conclusion were as follows. 1) Body weight decreased in majority of patients with chronic renal failure. 2) Total body water and ditto per centimeter of height showed a tendency of decrease. 3) Extracellular water per centimeter of height and its percentage to body weight showed an increase, indicating that nearly all patients had edema manifest or latent. 4) Intracellular water and ditto per centimeter of height showed a marked decrease more than cell solids, suggesting that intracellular dehydration was taking place in parallel with the breakdown of cell mass. 5) Lean body mass and ditto per centimeter of height showed a more decrease than fat mass. This may be attributed to decrease of cell mass. 6) Patients with chronic renal failure showed pathologic changes, not only in volume and distribution of body water, but also in composition of body such as cell mass.
Presented in this paper are the results of some experimental studies on the action of serum clotting factors as to the formation of active prothrombin-converting-principle or blood-thromboplastin, and on the assay of Factor VII activity in serum. These investigations arose from the study of two siblings with congenital bleeding tendency of Factor VII deficiency type, as judged by prothrombin time tests. During the study of the patients it was possible to observe the effects on blood-thromboplastin formation of mixtures of some pathological sera. 1) It was suggested that the Factor VII deficient serum has no or little effect on the result of thromboplastin generation test of Biggs and Douglas. It appeared, on the other hand, that the concentration of Factor VII in the reagent has a great effect on the result of the test in which brain extract is used as a reagent instead of platelet suspension. 2) The sera of patients with severe liver injury, and patients treated with Phenylindandione are deficient in Christmas factor as well as Factor VII. From the results of mixture-experiments, the possibility of the existence of third serum clotting factor was inferred, but if this factor is identical with Factor X of Koller has not yet been made. This factor is deficient in patients suffering from severe liver injury, and in patients treated with phenylindandione. 3) It is advisable to use acid-treated-serum as for Factor VII-poor-serum, since the asbestos-filtered-serum lacks much quantity of Christmas factor. 4) A method of assay of Factor VII activity in serum, based on the thromboplastin generation test in the presence of brain extract, was described. The Factor VII activity in the serum of 50 healthy adults was found to vary between 64 to 114 percent. Furthermore, serum samples from 21 cases with coagulation defects were examined. The results obtained by the method correlated well with SPCA sctivity obtained by the method of de Vries et al..