The concept of a German term "doppelseitige Erschliessung"was proposed at the end of 1950's by Prof.Dr.Wolfgang Klafki, a famous German educational researcher. The concept means firstly a framework for interpreting educational phenomena, secondly a "back-and-forth-simultaneously" thinking stemmed from the educational thought of Friedrich Frobel, and thirdly a construct of mental categories based by some organized stimuli in the outer world. The term "doppelseitige Erschliessung" indicates a dual structure of open-mindedness in the situation of teaching and learning, where learners can make their own mind open to teachers and acquire the content of teaching materials only when teachers have active open-mindedness to learners and teach subject matters to them. In this paper I described the contributions of the concept to the interpretation of educational phenomena. It makes a contribution to the principle of single track system of school education, the construction of subject matters, the description of educational communication in classrooms and the educational assessment. The concept "doppelseitige Erschliessung" is to offer a view point that children are always able to be brought up with powerful mental energies only in the educational organization such as schools where from elementary through secondary to higher education they are able to acquire any kinds of useful knowledge and skills using their own abilities without being grouped by any kinds of their abilities, that is, they are assured to learn subject matters by the single track school system. As to the construction of subject matters the concept is to offer some criteria by means of which teachers are able to make some kinds of teaching materials for learners in the school. Then, the concept is available for making a model of educational communication in classrooms and the educational assessment.
The purpose of this paper is to obtain a pedagogical view point to view the reality of education by explicating the meaning of TOUCHING for teachers. In this paper, the meaning of TOUCHING is considered in two aspects. One aspect is the general meaning of the experience of TOUCHING. The peculiarlities of the sense of touch are made clear in comparison with the other four senses, especially the sense of sight. The important peculiarlities of the sense of touch are mutuality and immediateness. Though TOUCHING is based on the sense of touch, TOUCHING can not be identified with the sense of touch. The other aspect is the proper, meaning of TOUCHING for teachers. The consideration in this aspect is based on the general meaning of TOUCHING. TOUCHING for teachers has the double meanings: teacher's TOUCHING the children's experience of TOUCHING things. In other words, good teachers can find omens of learning in subtle changes of the relationship between children and each their world by TOUCHING. The teacher's bodily set which suits TOUCHING children is POSITIVE PASSIVITY, that is the relaxed and open state of the body. In conclusion, the ambigious word TOUCHING changes into the useful and important conception for teachers by this paper.
The "Lebenswelt" by Pestalozzi resulted from his own unending mediations and practices, which were based on his hands-on experiences in education under various actual situations passing one after the other. In order to fully understand his practical educational ideas, it seesms indispensable to study phenomenologically his "Lebenswelt" in which a child learns through his own sensory experience and observation. From this point of view, the paper presents a deep understanding of Pestalozzi's practical educational ideas which have constantly developed with the changing world, historically and socially. In order to make the essentials more clear, a phenomenological approach was adopted in examining his key points which include,among others,"Leiblichkeit," "Talking" and "Wohnstube." In Chapter 1,"Blick" is explained. Contrary to the word "Auge" that connotes seeing things physically and objectively in natural science, for instance, the "Blick" is closely related to subjective phenomena; in other words, the intentionality of consciousness. Discussed here is the educational significance that the "Blick" is subjectively responsive and integrated within the learner. Chapter 2 covers "Leiblichkeit" in the term of Pestalozzi. The discussion is focused on how a child could acquire his social, moral and intellectual knowledge and independence through the "Leiblichkeit", which means a way of learning through the child's sensory experience and observation of things around him. Chapter 3 deals with "Listening." The discussion centers on the listening process throgh which a child learns first by intuition or impression, then calls other's ideas and views in him, then deepens and widens his thought by means of those different opinions, then builds up a world of dialogue within his self, and talks back to his self. In Chapter 4 treats the interactive relationship between "Blick," "Leiblichkeit," "Listening" and "Talking back to his self," which was shaped as Pestalozzi deepened the concept of living. In this sense, the principle of "Wohnstube" is discussed here with respect to how it is the place to create the educational relationship.
As far as the Montessori education concerned, it has been pointed out that we have relied inordinately upon the standerdized manuals. But as I try to show in the present paper, this observation is utterly unfounded and derives from a simple misunderstanding. In what follows, I would first examine Montessori's view of children, and then go on to identify the essence of the Montessori education. 1. The biological-physiological view of children Montessori's method has been regarded as scientific, and this has much to do with the fact that she has utilized the experimental techniques of natural sciences. Her "experiment" proved successful, and she identified two important notions about the development of a child, viz., building plan and concentration of attentiveness. 2. The view of socialization The problem of socialization has been much discussed in the studies of the Montessori pedagogy. Montessori was aware of the importance of socialization, but she stressed more the role of individualization in one's infancy. 3. The metaphysical view of children Montessori stressed not only a child's superficial behavioral phenomenon but his/her entire personality as well. After repeated concentration, according to her, the child has come to show some changes in his/her behavior. In it she saw the awakening of the hidden human nature, the process of "normalization" as she termed it. After examining most of Montessori's writings, I am convinced that she has succeeded in grasping the essence of education from a broader perspective. I have also found on the basis of her educational theory lies a metaphysical view of children. Educators are thus advised not simply to master pedagogical materials, but also to find in each child his/her hidden nature, and to foster it in a most appropriate manner. The key to the Montessori education is her metaphysical view of children, not its manuals.
How should we interpret the concept of learning group ("Gakushu-Shudan")? We had some disputes over this concept, specially over the character of "self-government" in learning group. The purpose of this paper is to propose several fundamental suggestion for defenition of this concept. (1) I criticize Tyuji OHNISHI's stand point of this concept that "learning group is restricted by the school subject (the contents of learning)". Conversely, I propose a new stand point that "learning group restricts the school subject, too". My statement is based on fact that learning is always influenced by learning group in the classroom, especially by human relation in the classroom. (2) Learning group should contain the character of "self-government" in order that the pupil learns actively. Without this character, teaching becomes "indoctrination" and learning becomes passively. This character of "self-government" makes the subject (the contents of learning) scientifically, too. This character is necessary in field of instruction (Kyoka-sido) as well as guidance (Seikatu-sido). (3) How should we organize the learning group? We are able to organize this group either according to classroom or according to subject-class. I propose that this group should be organized according to classroom. Classroom is fundamental group for school life. In other word, classroom is "Seikatu-Shudan". Character of Seikatu-Shudan influences upon the learning effectly, so learning group should be organized according to classroom.
This paper tries to inquire the relationship in classroom-process by comparing the cases. The inquiry besed on the selected children. They are selected by Processing the Classroom-Process Record. A viewpoint of selecting them is the quality and quantity of chlidren's utterance. By this viewpoint, they are selected by processing the record of classroom-process: I made Tables that show the number of times of children's utterance and the frequency of being reffered in utterance are drawn up. They are the key children in the classroom-process then. The process and each child's learning were affected by them. In this study, their learning activity are investigated in conformity with the record of classroom-process. Then, a relationship between them and the teacher or other children is investigated, too. In this study, I tried to compare the five cases. The teachers of these cases belong to a same private educational research organization. And these are realized the circumstance that the children lively spoke out about the comprehension of the teaching material each other. Let me summarize the main points and the future issues that have been made in the result of this study. First, what does it mean for children to learn in a class? This perpar suggests that we have to study it by relating various relationships in classroom-process. Secondly, the reliant relation between teacher and chlidren needs to be inquire as each peculiar one. Therefore, we have to call a matter in question of making mutual agreement: Its essence and its possibility need to be clear by comparing the superior cases.
On evaluating teaching-learning processes, it is effective that learners' recognition and teaching materials are able to be expressed one-dimensionally by using the ruleg system. Especially ru, a constituent of the ruleg system, is a key concept in considering the reformation of erroneous criteria. Ru is a learner's judgement criterion and it is erroneous and autogenetic in its characteristic. In the first section, the characteristics of various kinds of ru's are explained with some concrete examples. In the second section, the instructional strategies of reforming ru's are discussed from a point of view of the presentation sequences of focus instances. Two different presentation sequences are taken up. One is what shift from focus instances learners misjudge as exceptions to these they can recognize as correct instances. Another is what is in the reverse order. The effectiveness of the instructional strategy, which take the grounds of learners' ru's into consideration, are also discussed in this section. In the third section, it is described that learners are not aware of the attributes in themselves or the value of attributes which they use as foundation of their judgements on ru's. This thing occasionally causes learners the formation of a kind of ru's, which they apply the correct rule only to a limited extent. The instructional strategy, which makeslearners form the instances they misjudged as the exceptions for themselves and verify them, brings effects on reforming this sort of ru's.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of two kinds of teacher's evaluative statememts on students' intrinsic motivation and learning. Two experimental conditions were set up during daily classes at a junior high school. One condition was the grade-related statement condition, where the students took quizzes that were supposed to become parts of their final grades. The other condition was the progress-monitoring statement condition, where the students were told to evaluate their own understanding of the subject by taking quizzes. In both experimental conditions, five classes were conducted experimentally, and the last five minutes of each class was spent on a quizz. The results suggest that the grade-related statement condition decreases intrinsic motivation relative to the progress-monitoring statement condition. In addition, several dependent scores in the progress-monitoring statement condition were significantly higher than that of the grade-related statement condition, such as perceived competence, perceived tension and anxiety, positive attitudes toward quizzes, and retention. These results suggest that administration of grade-related tests can undermine students' intrinsic motivation and adversely affect their learning.
The aim of this paper is to propose the new research paradigm on teaching to 1990's. The process-product research has been the main paradigm of research on teaching. But, neither student cognitive operations nor the immediate products of those operations are observed to test hypotheses about relations among student cognitive operations and teaching behaviors. So, what actually happens in a student's cognitive system always must be infered rather than operationally determined. The process-product paradigm makes assumptions about events in this black box that could be tested. It is the weakness which process-product research suffers in an attempts to explain why teacher behaviors account for student cognitive operations. It is the reason why the cognitive mediational paradigm is proposed as a remedy to this problem. So, this study was designed and examined the usability of this paradigm focusing on relation between teacher behaviors, student cognitive operations. First, in this study, I could measure the correlations between pretests, posttests, teacher behaviors, and student cognitions. The results show the positive correlations between teacher questioning and evaluating behaviors and student knowledge processing, but the negative correlation between teacher management behaviors and students' goal oriented cognition. Next, the mapping study of instructional tactics by high and low achievement groups was also conducted to describe the relations among teaching behaviors and student cognitions'. The main finding can be summarized as follows: In case of the high achievement group, we could find the main pattern of structuring-questioning-knowledge processing-questioning. On the contrary, in case of the low achievement group, we could find the main pattern of structuring-questioning-evaluating. Accordingly, there was poverty of knowledge processing in case of the latter group compared to the former.
In secondary school mathematics classrooms, teachers still remain engaged in transmitting existing knowledge to their students. This traditional 'transmission mode' has been the norm for many years. Students work to digest the questions provided by teachers and textbooks. Creativity is absent from this teacher-centered method of instruction, and there is no place for students to discover rules for themselves through induction. The Education Ministry Monbusho has proposed in its "Suggested Study Outline" issued to all teachers, that Kadai Gakushu (Assignment Learning) be used as a method of overcoming the resulting student passivity and making classes more student-centered. Although this study holds out promise and expectations, we must be alert to the inherent risks involved in such an undertaking. The author first analyzes and acknowledges the strengths and weaknesses of this proposal. He next reports on an attempt to incorporate Assignment Learning into the existing scheme of study by introducing topical materials. He concludes that is a danger of overload as teachers are expected to cover the pre-existing syllabus in addition to using Assignment Learning.
The proportion of the aged in the total population (reaching 13.0% in 1992) is quickly rising. The speed of increase is greater than hitherto expected. Japan is, however, far behind many of the industrialized countries of Europe and America, as regards the social security systems and other welfare facilities. On the other hand, number of so-called nuclear families is on the increase. As a regard most young people don't have chances of having intimate contact with elderly members in their own families. The present study is primarily aimed at considering the possibility on the part of children of understanding the elderly. Secondly I wanted to see what means are provided for the purpose in the everyday scenes of public education, especially in elementary schools. In children's literature, particularly since 1980's, many works have been published relating to the aging society. They frequently refer to such images as "aged", "lonesome", "bedridden", "death", etc. as well as "gentle", "calm", and "kindly" old people. In my recent study of elementary school textbooks, however, I have found very few references to the changing relationships between the old and the young. Almost all articles in these textbooks are based on the time-honored concept of the people advanced in age. In short, I must say that it would be impossible for the children using these textbooks to gain a realistic idea of the actual conditions of the elderly in today's society.
In this article, the research material is the Historical Education textbooks "Today through Yesterday". These textbooks were written by C. F. Strong in 1936 in Britain. The purpose of these textbooks is to bring up the citizen through historical education. I tried to make clear the principle of the historical content construction. The result of the analysis is as follow. 1) The purpose of citizenship education in Britain was to bring up the citizen who understand the democracy and make effort to defend it aganst the dictatorship. 2) Strong made clear the principle that bring up the citizen through historical content construction. 3) Strong concluded that the material of the historical education is the historical things. And, he concluded that the material of the citizenship education is the current things. So, he deviced the principle of the historical content construction for citizenship education. And, he put the principle into effect. This was the historical education textbooks "Today through Yesterday ". 4) "Today through Yesterday" was made up four books. The date of each books treted was as follow. book 1 earlist times to 1603 book 2 1603-1837 book 3 1837-present book 4 present 5) The principle of the historical content construction for book 1 to book 2 is the chronological approach. The principles for book 3 is the topic approach. The principles for books 4 is the concentric approach. 6) The special feature of the principle of "The through Yesterday" is the gradual change chronological approach to concentric approach.
The Course of Study for Lower Secondoy School revised in 1989, introduced the new area, 'Basic Information Technology' into Industrial Arts and Homemaking. Two kinds of the official approval textbooks for this subject were published in 1992. Both of them emphasized on teaching how to use the personal computer with some popular aplication softwares, as well as the rudiment of computer programing in the BASIC language. But these subject matters should be reexamined, because they are not seemed to have enough worth teaching as universal industrial arts education. We think that the computer education in the 'Basic Information Technology' area should be organized forming a link in the chain of the industrial arts education so that its main aim is to help. students explore the world of the flexible automation technology, and comprehend that manufacturing efficiency can be improved by integrating machines and equipments under computer control into a system. Students reexperience activities of designing, objectfying, and try and testing the programs for program control, as a result, they should be able to explain why computers can make automations be flexible. The course of study and teaching materials for, the 'Basic Information Technology' which we developed, can attain these aims and objectives of the computer education in Industrial Arts.
Specialist in Home Economics Education in U.S.A., V. M. Chamberlain states the relation among cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domain, quoting from a food and nutrition area, as follows: Remembering, understanding, relating, analyzing, synthesizing, and assessing nutritional knowledge are not enough. Students also need to develop an interest in, appreciation for, and positive attitude toward using their knowledge. In addition, students have to be able to prepare food so that it is nutririous. This suggests us that, not to mention acquisition of more qualitative scientific knowledge and development of complex physical skills to incarnate them are necessary, "transition and development of attitudes" for bringing "knowledge" and "skills" together should be the one we pursuit for practical use of the both. Based on the awareness of issues above, a research of teaching was made in this study, aiming at "Home economics lessons for development of attitudes" and "development lessons available for any teacher's practice" giving an example of the "study in nutrition in elementary school" which is evaluated as a most uninteresting one by teachers and children. From the result, I made a proposal for teaching project, "Why we take favorite and unfavoraite foods", which is a free-allocated elementary-leveled mini unit in food and nutrition in such a style that the lessons are available for any who has some grounding in Home Economics.
This study looks into some elements of intelligence and the role of playing in early childhood education. It also aims to contribute data for further study of the structure of relation between early childhood education and primary education. In order to study the relation between early childhood education and primary education, some elements of "school readiness" which is a connecting point between these two educational stages, have to be examined. This study was grounded on the theory of G. Witzlack et al., and focused on intelligence as the uniting point of two aspects: (1) the ability of language, and (2) the ability of intuition. Moreover, under this conception, imagination, which is the medium of the above-mentioned two abilities, was also considered very important. Next, the definition of imagination and its significance for the development of intelligence, grounded on the theory of L. S. Vygotsky, were dealt with. "Imagination" is defined as the ability of understanding the objective reality, acting on it and reforming it purposefully and intentionally. Therefore, we must open up children to a real world in order to develop their imagination. By means of it, imagination is broadened and deepened in the interaction with experience. In this process, imagination develops in a close relation with the ability of language and intuition. And the activity of "playing" plays a vital role in the development of imagination. Playing is developed by the imagination, while a part of imagination also can be developed only by playing. The development of imagination in playing enables (1) children to be released from the restriction of conditions in playing, and enables (2) children to approach the objective reality in playing. By examining these two points, this article tried to recognize the role of playing in early childhood education from a viewpoint of "school readiness".
In this article the term of active inquiry attitudes means the attitudes inquiring actively and persistently. Fostering active inquiry attitudes in this meaning has been thought important in direction and help of inquiry of young children. But the studies laying a stress on it aren't finded in the past studies about direction and help of inquiry of young children. So it is needed to study about fostering active inquiry attitudes in infancy. In this article the study about it is made and the following are pointed out. 1) In early childhood spontaneity and independence is laid a stress on in Japan. So in case of thinking about the themes of inquiry in infancy we need to take notice of the self-themes in infancy. 2) Some examples of kinds of self-themes and some examples of finding of them in infancy have been given. In this article the examples are given, too. It is good for teachers to direct and to help young children after grasping these examples. 3) Before young children begin to inquire, teachers will generally need to encourage, support and to have sympathy with them. But teachers will need to dissolve their uneasiness about failure at first, if they have it. 4) After young children begin to inquire, teachers will need to help them like the following. At first teachers need to accept their requests for help with understanding that their requests for help are one means of them. Secondly teachers need to help low developed children of active inquiry attitudes laying a stress on grasping and accepting their paces. And teachers need to help high developed children of active inquiry attitudes laying a stress on suggesting and setting good examples.
In 1912 (45th year of Meiji), Sozo Kurahashi wrote a literary work "MORINO-YOUCHIEN (Grove Kindergarten)" which he started his pedagogical study with, and practically made his debut in the world of kindergarten pedagogy as well as in the practical world of early childhood education. In this work which he drew up figuers of idealistic kindergarten, he proposed his "indirect education" as the method of early childhood education. The "indirect education" in "Grove Kindergarten" has schematically a structure of "educator-material-child" relation ("educator-thing-child" relation in generalized terms) which can be categolized as the first pattern of his "indirect education". In other articles, he proposed the second and the third patterns of relationship which were respectively "educator-child-child" ("educator-man-child"), and "educator-play-child" relation ("educator-phenomenon-child" relation in generalized terms). Like this, Kurahashi's "indirect education" has triple meanings.[table]Recently the method of "education through environment" has been recognized to be important in early childhood education. "Education through environment" that is "education through things, men and phenomena" mediate between educator's intention and child. In this sense, "education through environment" can be said to be the same as "indirect education" that was proposed by Kurahashi. The term of "indirect education" which explain the structure of "education through environment" will become a key-word in the methdology of early childhood education.
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