At the beginning this treatise presents three ways of comprehending human being, founding on Buber's insights. The first is observation in which one fixes the behavior of the observed in one's mind and writes up as many traits as possible. The second is looking on, in which one tries to see the object freely and awaits what will be presented to him without any expectation. The third is "becoming aware" ("Innewerden") in which a voiceless word is talked to me and "I accept that." These differences in comprehending human being take more concrete shape in Kimura's phenomenological psychopathology and Binswanger's. According to Kimura, an essence of schizophrenia cannot be elucidated by the determinate predicate that discovers and describes the attributes of the objects, but by the modifying predicate that can be judged by a subjective impression or "emotional diagnosis"("Gefuhlsdiagnose"). In case of studying classroom teaching, its elucidation also needs to depend upon not only the description which is based on observing the experience of teachers and children, but also needs to depend upon becoming aware (Innewerden) and the modifying predicate. This elucidation is realized through my own experience and Takeda's documents of classes. Consequently it is made clear, that the mutual awareness among children plays an important role in classroom teaching.
Reserchi on the education based on children = human being, this is the theme of my reserch up to now. This paper states the contents conceiving the figure of the education which should be in the future, as "Dialogue", prescribing the children as "Dialogic Being", as a tolerable result of "Reseach on Viewpoint of Grasping Children "which has been continued up to now. That is, "Dialogue" is neither the talking of one way passing (speak to) such as the tuansmission and report, nor the light talking such as the pleasant talking and chattering, but to talk with the specific partner face to face, deeply, mutually and independently on a certain theme. And it is, through those, either to draw some other new conclusions which there have never been until now, or to become the new self transcendentally through the dialogue inside the self eventually. On the substance of the dialogue, in chapter 1, three points of 1. personality-like mutual independence, 2. presence, 3. existence is mentioned and considered. And in chapter 2, the educational action such as expression of the eyes and standing place, question making, community making and individuality develoing, is re-built from the viewpoint of the dialogue.
In about twentieth year of Meiji era, most elementary school teachers were more concerned about the teaching methods than the teaching theory. This was because they had little experience in mass teaching, and most teachers were not graduates of a Normal School. Consequently, a short teacher's course held from latter half of tenth year in Meiji, was an effective means of learning both teaching theory and methods. But really, many teachers were rather concerned with the teaching methods. Criticism of teaching was one of the subjects which included focussing on the fixation of learning the teaching methods. After that, criticism seperated from a short teacher's course, expanded into the critical seminors. In that place, teachers investigated the correspondence of teaching theory and practice, subjects of teaching practice and its methods of overcoming. In the context of developmental process of mass teaching, criticism had various meanings. The first was that it was beneficial to learning the teaching theory and methods. The second was that many teachers paid attention to the activities of the pupils in the teaching practice. So instead of automatically following the methods which teachers learned in the short teacher's course, teachers began to respond to their pupils, recognizing their needs and their thought, and to notice the importance of understanding their pupils. The third was that criticism developed the ability of the teaching practice. Criticism on other's practice of teaching promoted the improvement of their own practice.
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the concept of "Classroom (Homeroom)" in Tetsufumi Miyasaka's guidance theory. I will especially focus on the formation of his educational theory during the 1950's. It is generally known that Tetsufumi Miyasaka has contributed to the progress of studies in guidance in Japan. His theory has changed with the times. It is important to make clear the significance of his modified theory during the 1950's. Now I, however, will make clear the ideas that he adhered to and emphasized. In this article, I will reexamine the "Classroom (Homeroom)"concept which Miyasaka pursued from a "relationship" and "self-guidance" standpoint. I will also consider the historical development of this concept. He considered the "Classroom (Homeroom)" to be a place where close relationships could be made, between the teacher and the students and among the students. He also thought that one of the purposes of guidance was to develop "self-guidance". Miyasaka, therefore, understood that free self-expression of a student was important. I will redefine the "Classroom (Homeroom)"concept and suggest the ways in which the concept can be reorganized, with relating it to the situation today.
This article describes about the meaning and process for the students to learn on gender issue. The current research defined that in adolescence girls undergo a mental conflict between their ideal self-image and the stereotyped feminine image which man expects and that it is difficult for girls to get gender identity with self-esteem. They need a opportunity for learning on gender issue and seeking self. The purposes of the study were to identify the mechanism of sexism and the concept of gender through feminist theory, and the process which students will be capable of looking critically at their world and come to new awareness of self and society through learning on gender issue in class with analyzing and interpreting Kazuko Yoshida's class practices in public high school. As a result, the following three points were found; 1 , Gender is cultural construction, which has justified "patriarchy" and it has been formed by "man made concepts" and division to public domain for man and personal domain for woman in modern times, and woman and child are under the control of man. 2 . Reconstruction of curriculum contents needs minority perspective such as woman. 3. Learning on gender issue needs interactive communication among human subjects in class through which students can found "patriarchy" in family as gendered domain and gradually perceive their personal and social reality and deal critically with it.
This paper examines the controversial discussions about the communikative didactics that has been experienced in Germany since 70's. The purpose of this study is to find the view that might solve the problems of hidden curriculum that Japanese schools have been offered. The advocate of communikative didactics analizes that hidden curriculum would be achieved with help of complementary communikation between the teachers and the students. Also, in order to establish stable condition of students' ego, the symmetrical communikation should be built between the two. On the contrary, a criticism arises. That is to say, if it's possible to accomplish symmetrical communikation, or whether the symmetrical communikation should be tried or not. Relatively, the "kommunikationstheoretische Wende" that was proposed by Jurgen Habermas becomes significant. According to Jan Masschelein, it is indispensable to understand "kommunikationstheoretische Wende" fully to make it possible to get symmetrical communikation between the teachers and the students.
It seems that the theories of the teaching method and content in East and West germany change their paradigms with national unitication as turning point. In regard to this Lothar Klingberg is rated as one of the most famous scholars in the german democratic republic. And his study is designated as dialectical study by some scholars. He has inquired into the relations between the teacher and pupils in a lesson as well as their part for structuring the teaching-learning process. And he has had a grasp of this relation by studying the relations between a principle "fiiherde Rolle des Lehrers" and a principle "Selbsttatigkeit der Schuler". In his latest report he sums his theory up to this day and gropes after the new stage of his study. At that time the theory which Dietrich Benner comes up with from the general viwe of education plays important part. This report is as follows, 1:Clearing up the part of a principle"Selbsttatigkeit" for structuring the teaching-learning process as well as a theoretical probrem in Klingberg's theory, 2:Reconsidering a principle "Selbsttatigkeit" through considering Benner's theory, 3:Bringing up a change the grasping a principle "Selbsttatigkeit" which is deduced from the new stage of dialectical modell. The aim of this report is clearing up the dangerousness in grasping the relations between the teacher and the pupils, as well as getting a clue to avoiding this dangerousness.
The author examines the features of pedagogical content knowledge (pck) and its implications. Pck was first contrived by L. S. Shulman. He was indicated pck as very important knowledge among teacher knowledge base. Pck is combined knowledge, including knowledge of content, pedagogy and knowledge of the learner's conceptions and preconceptions, including misconceptions. And pck is invented by teacher who will teach some topics. Pck is producted through the process of pedagogical reasoning (pr). Shulman especially emphasized transformation in that process. Transformation is constituted by four process, preparation, representation, selection and adaptation & tailoring to student characteristics. The features of pck is as follows. (1) pck is amalgam of some knowledge (2) pck is producted through pr which is the problem-solved process (3) pck is special forms of teacher knowledge which indicates the features of professional aspects of teaching The implication of pck from point of teacher education, is the next two points. (1) pck points out the importance of the courses of content and method (2) pck indicates the needs of means for 'apprenticeship of observation' formed before entering the teacher education program The contents are as follows. 1. Introduction 2 . Shulman's pck and its formation process 3. The evolution of the study of pck 4. The features of pck 5. Conclusion
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meanings of self-evaluation by children in the general learning. The general learning is put into practice wholly to attain the school-learning aims including the sides of both knowlege and emotion. It respects the self-activity studies by children themselves. We discuss the followings. 1. The self-evaluation by children themselves should be used for improving the ways of spontaneous studies, and that particularly promoting the adequate self-understanding. It must be far from the evaluation which is compelled by their teacher. In short the teacher's evaluation can not be the proper appreciation of themselves by themselves. In a sense, the self-evaluation by children must improve the sense of self-affirmation, which makes themselves feel the self-efficiency. 2. There is more important function in the evaluation of themselves in the general learning than one of the aquired knowlege. That is, the former might establish the knowlege of themselves, and it is superior to the knowing what the subject matters consist in.
The purpose of this study is to consider nursery education curriculum studies in Japan after the World War II, and to find new directions of nursery education curriculum studies. Therefore this paper concentrates its consideration on flexible development of nursery education curriculum. First of all, current studies of nursery education curriculum gived weight to curriculum construction principles and organizing the nursery educational content, so that kindergarten and day-care center's practices were occurred confusion. And then this paper critical analyzed on practical curriculum studies. All these things maked it clear that only few attempts have so far been made at the studies on flexible development in nursery education curriculum. Finally, I sum up new directions of nursery education curriculum studies as follows: (1) Clear the conception of professional warker in nursery education (2) Clear the concrete process of curriculum development (3) Clear the hidden curriculum It is suggested that these three points will become more important on flexible development of nursery education curriculum in the future.
In 1947 (22th year of Showa), term "environment" was used in the law of school education (Gakkou Kyouiku Hou). According to H. Sakamoto who made up the law, it means both thing- and man-environment. At a later time, term "environment" has been used in the same way. In 1988 (63th year of Showa), its meaning began to change. As soon as the methodology of "education through environment" began to be advocated in early childhood education, the earlier dualistic viewpoint of thing- and man-environment added one more viewpoint. In my opinion, that is the third viewpoint of phenomenon-environment. Under discussing the document of education plan in kindergarten, many articles and documents which are written by government officials of the department of education appeared. In those articles and documents the third viewpoint "phenomenon-environment" has been advocated unconsciously in my view. Now we must classify "environment" into thing-, man- and phenomenon-environment, then we can explain the details of the practice and its structure in early childhood education.
The main purpose of this paper is to review the research literature on the "Reflective Teacher Development" in order to highlight the trend and issues of this research domain. The author paid close attention to the research proposals which regarded the dialogue as a key element for facilitating the reflection of teachers. Suggested by these examples, he developed the framework to analyze the dialogue systems adopted in them. It took up two phases of the dialogue systems as the analytical criteria: one is the "partner (researcher vs. colleague)" the teacher talks with, and the other is the "topics (wholistic vs. restrictive)" they discuss. Under the framework, the author devised the research map which consisted of four categories of the dialogue systems, and placed most of the preceding researches on that map. He also pointed out some problems in those systems which need to be tackled with. In addition, the author made it clear that some researchers tried to design and develop the integrated dialogue systems for reflective teacher development, in which educators of various fields or positions participated to exchange their ideas on educational practices. He also clarified that in those innovative systems, displaying their own expertise, the educators successfully encouraged the teachers to reflect on their actions and beliefs. Finally, the author referred to the importance of investigating what kind of abilities the participant educators should have and how they should share their expected roles in the new dialogue systems.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the approach of Winifred Ward's creative drama. In this paper I analyze the creative drama activity: "GOLDILOCKS" leaded by Ward. I discuss the definitions of creative drama, the goals and objectives, the history of Ward's creative drama, and her representative activity. Creative drama is a process-oriented, improvisational drama activity which is guided by a creative drama leader. It has educational goals/objectives. Her major goals of creative drama are the individual and social development of children. Her approach requires a leader who has skills of storytelling and acting, knowledge of education, child development, and theatre/drama. Through these analyses I clarify the following five distinguishing characteristics in her creative drama: (1) Literature is the main stimulus for her creative drama because she is a good storyteller. (2) Her creative drama has a sequence: warm-up exercises, basic exercises, and complex exercises. (3) Her creative drama uses "a building-block sequence of activities: "movement/pantomime", "characterization", and "dramatization". (4) In her creative drama children show their work each other (5) Her creative drama has "evaluation" in the end of the activity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of team teaching on children's mathematical understanding. Team teaching was introduced to four classes of an elementary school. Two were third grade and two were fourth grade. Children of these classes had experienced arithmetic lessons with two teachers for one year. Every lesson was characterized by two features; short exercise of calculation and immediate feedback of the result, and individual instruction by two teachers. Pretest was administered at the beginning of that team teaching activity, and posttest was done at the end of it, in order to examine the effect of team teaching. The results were as follows. 1) Children who had experienced team teaching got higher scores on many problems of the posttest, than those who had not. This tendency was marked in the case of difficult computation problems and word problems. 2) Children's understanding of multiplication, division, and fraction progressed between the pretest and the posttest. Implications for arithmetic teaching were discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the organization of lessons and methodological theory of elementary social studies practices of Hideo Aikawa's "New Teaching of Geography and History", Takemasa Eguchi's "Fifth-Grade Students in Elementary School of Village" and Kiyoharu Suzuki's "Revolution of Social Studies" in the early era after World War II. These practices have been given a high evaluation as one of the most important practice of Japanese social studies by many teachers and scholars. The results of the analysis is as follows; 1) The each organization of lessons of these practices is different. The Aikawa's practice is characterized as the studies on the history of home community, the Eguchi's practice is characterized as the studies on the social problem of home community, and the Suzuki's practice is characterized as the studies on the social life of home community. 2) The common methodological theory of these social studies practices is "problem-solving through inquiry". 3) In the lessons of social studies based on "problem-solving through inquiry", children are required to inquiry and study (in other words, to describe, explain and judge) about social phenomena.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship of the developmental process through the activity of musical expression of speech, movement and sound in the elementary form. In order to investigate the above, a practice of making music on a picture book is planned in a class of children with light intellectual disability. One boy with unique musical expression was chosen and his lesson record was observed for 2 years. The analysis of his lesson record is as follows. 1. At the first stage, he creates fragmentary rhythm from the rhythm of onomatopoeia. 2. At the second stage, he connects these fragments of rhythm. And he makes music with dynamics and musical form from the expression of the series of onomatopoeia. 3. At the third stage, he creates fragmentary stories from the material he has now. Then he makes music in the playing style that is faithful to the stories. At the same time, he diversifies the music. 4. At the final stage, fragmentary images are combined in a complete story and played with the vivid expression given from the story. In the above process, speech (mostly the story making and onomatopoeia), and the sounds from instruments are closely related. Rhythm is created from the rhythm of onomatopoeia. The whole expression of onomatopoeia is transformed into the sound of musical expression of dynamics and musical form. In order to diversify and enrich the content of the music, his story making plays the most important role. Here I could observe a close relationship among his speech, movement and sound of expression activity by means of creating a piece of work with a plot. Therefore the music he creates is a perfect whole composed of speech, movement and sound in a natural form.
The Sociology of Education has undergone a far-reaching change of emphasis in recent years. The change was first heralded by the publication of Knowledge and Control (1971) edited by M.F.D. Young and, whilst the contributions to the book come from widerly diverse perspectives, two in particular serve to mark a considerable break from the most previous studies of education. The first is the application of the sociology of knowledge to education. And the second is the fleuence of phenomenology. G. Vulliamy spelled out the implications of viewing music teaching from the perspective of the New Sociology of Education. Using Young's discussion of the 'stratification of knowledge', Vulliamy has attempted to illustrate the cultural clash-a clash between subject-based high status knowledge ('serious' music), which is the musical culture of the school, and everyday low status knowledge ('pop' music), which is the musical culture of most of the school pupils. It is argued that music teaching is particularly good example of how differing definitions of what counts as music in the school setting are linked with different criteria of success, different relationships between teacher and taught, and different teachers' perceptions relating to intelligence, family background and musical ability. The purpose of this paper is to construct a framework for a theory on curriculum research in music education from the viewpoint of the New Sociology of Education. Vulliamy has attempted to show that the New Sociology of Education provided a useful perspective from which to interpret the failure of music teaching. We attempt to analyze G. Vulliamy's theory of 'culture clash' in music education, based on the New Sociology of Education. This analysis is enabled us to give the redefinition of 'school knowledge' to music education. Furthermore, it leads us to propose the significance of Vulliamy's theory in music education, particular on music curriculum research. By reviewing the Vulliamy's theory, we propose that the perspective of the New Sociology of Education is significant in constructing a theory of curriculum research in music education.
The purpose of this study was to analyze how the problems would come into existence and develop at the elementary and the junior high school music classes. By a problem-solving approach to music education I planned the creative music-making activity and implemented in the 4th grade class, Hirano Elementary School (1991) and the first grade class, Hirano Junior High School (1992) attached Osaka Kyoiku University. At first the personal and obscure problems occurred through the interaction between children and the musical materials while they were producing the musical work. So when they could recognize the logic or structure of their products by the reflective thinking, these problems would develop as the common ones which related the personal problems. Then the discussion about the common problems could lead the children to the perspective of their activity and self-evaluation.
"The new view of scholastic ability" which emphasizes learners' positive attitude and practical ability based on their interests, has been put forward widely since the new course of study was revised. The new trend bears the concept of "the new education" as its theoretical basis. The practices in Shima elementary school in the Showa Era is one of the famous ones based on this new education. Now, we will learn a lot from the practices in Shima elementary school. This paper's final aim is to propose the ideal method of carrying out practices on the new view of scholastic ability. It was for that purpose that we selected and analyzed the practices of domestic sciences which done by Teruko Kaito in Shima elementary school. As the result of that, Teruko Kaito was proved to be appropriate for a practitioner on the new view of scholastic ability. And through the analysis of the practices which done by Teruko Kaito, we got some educational philosophy and methods.
Japanese anti-discrimination education is often criticized because it has failed to link Japanese pupils' anti-discriminatory ideas to their anti-discriminatory practices. It suggests the necessity to study not only our idea of discrimination but also our practice of discrimination. This paper aims to clarify the structure of the discrimination as a practice and to get some suggestions for constructing anti-discrimination education. I examine Jane Eliot's anti-racism experimentation titled "A Class Divided" at the elementary school. It offers a key to attaining our purpose. First, I consider what discrimination is and define it as exclusion and accusation. Exclusion is not to accept a person as a member of a situation who intersubjectively constructs the reality of the situation. Exclusion is carried out in two ways. One is discriminator's forcible application of a different norm from his own to other people. The other is to neglect other people's peculiarity. Accusation is to accuse the exclusion of being unfair. Secondly, I analyze the structure of exclusion and show that it consists of three types. The structure restricts our daily practices. Whenever we discriminate other people on purpose or not, we unconsciously fall into the structure of exclusion. The structure is, as it were, a cultural machinery to interpret the everyday world. Thirdly, I describe the feature of non-discriminatory practice. Not to exclude other people, we should respect them for their differences and apply of the same norm as ours to them at the same time. Lastly, through these considerations, I offer some view points for constructing anti-discrimination education. The most important point is that it is necessary to enhance pupils' sensitivity to their structural restriction on their practices.
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