The aims of the study are to examine the principles of scope and sequence in Herbart's school curriculum and to consider its significance in the development of the modern school curriculum theory. In order to achieve these aims, an analysis is carried out of Herbart's writings and official documents from the Konigsberg academic committee. This study finds that: Herbart envisaged two branches of instruction in the school curriculum using the medium of history to develop students' interests. The Konigsberg academic committee planned school curriculum on the basis of Herbart's principles and systematized the content in terms of the historical organization of human experience. The committee expanded Herbart's principles into a theory of curriculum organization unique in the history of modern school curricula.
The task of this paper is to throw light on how much endeavor is being made towards forming a community at Waldorf by focusing on the architecture of Waldorf school. The following points were made clear as a result. (1) The characteristics of Waldorf school deduced from the viewpoint of revolutionary school movement are an independent school administration, the original formation of educational curriculum, and the quality of school as a community that prepares conditions for them. (2) The characteristics seen in the architecture of Waldorf school are that the school staffs themselves participate in the construction of the school so that they can live comfortably there. (3) It usually takes a long time to build the school, and the time comprises the process of completing the school as a "community," for in the meantime the builders of the school and the building itself, and a community as a school, are incorporated into one. (4) From the viewpoint of school as "community," a form of school is devised to send messages of "protection," "welcome," and "encounter." The festival hall plays a central part in Waldorf school, for it serves as "encounter" space, where all who are a part of the school can be assured that they are members of one community, and thus deepen the relationships within Waldorf.
The purpose of this paper is to make it clear how the concept of "educational relations" was re-interpreted theoretically by H. Nohl in his later works and then how A. S. Makarenko exercised an influence on his re-interpretation. In West Germany Nohl is the first educational researcher who reviewed for "Pedagogical Poem" written by Makarenko. Nohl saw him as an educational genius and a humanitarian. Nohl took an interest in Makarenko in respect to participate in their educational practices which devoted to the rehabilitation of waifs and juvenile delinquents. Nohl proposed the concept of educational relations, which means the personal relations of a teacher to a student. This concept was criticized by many educational reseachers for the ground that he ignored ultrapersonal and social forces which were at work in all sites of educational phenomena. Especially Makarenko sharply pointed out this problem. He developed the idea of education in and through a collective. For the background of Makarenko's thought, Nohl changed theoretically the way of comprehending the concept of educational relations and contained a collectivistic character in it. He made much of a group instruction rather than merely classroom learning and regarded a teacher as a helper. And he emphasized individual subordination to the group and attached much importance to the discipline in the group of students.
Ernst Weber (1873-1948) was one of national elementary school teachers ("Volksschullehrer") on Bayern in Germany, who changed paradigms of educational theories from art education ("Kunsterziehung") to educational art ("Erziehungskunst"). From aesthetic points of view, Weber defined educational art as principle of artistic teaching, not as the subject area of arts. He criticized methods of art education and alarmed for manualism. He changed the system of the educational science that he placed aesthetics in the system. The purpose of this paper is to consider artistic character of teaching in the class, with reference to the theory of educational art by Ernst Weber. Weber considered educational art as the beauty of teaching and learning in the classroom. He found out the beauty of educational practices. And he analyzed artistic character of teaching in the class, with reference to the theory of educational art. Adopting priciples of aesthetics, he difined character of educational artists from two points of view. One was the medium-artist ("Kunstvermittler") like a singer and an actor, the other was modeling-artist ("gestaltender Kiinstler") like a sculptor.
Dewey's theory of communication stands alone as one of the most important components of his philosophical thought. Despite the numerous studies done on it, no serious attempt has been carried through to properly fit it into his thought. Dewey is primarily concerned with elucidating how human growth occurs as the result of the creation of meaning. I propose that one is necessarily bound to ponder how his communication theory relates to his thought. In this paper, my crucial concern is to consider communication as a process of creating meaning as a necessary step in order to discuss his communication theory. This project is briefly summarized as follows. (1) The phenomenon of communication Communication depends on a variety of conditions. First, a situation with a common aim must exist. Subsequently, each person shared in the situation must be willingly engrossed in achieving this aim and the attitude held must be one of open-mindedness. According to this phenomenon, individuals must regulate their actions from the standpoint of others to consummate the common aim. Thus, communication is cooperative activities amongst the participants of the process. (2) The process of meaning creation When communicating, people first attempt to understand how each other acts to achieve a common aim. The property of action represents "meaning" as primarily described by Dewey. Then, people recognize the property of the objects used among them, that is, "meaning" as secondarily described by Dewey. In short, people actively participating in the communication create meaning. Thus, according to Dewey, communication is a consensus of actions, and meanings come together to enhance the process. Consequently, communication is the process which makes human life rich in meaning and human developed.
Self control is a critical aspect of learning morals, because it implies the establishment of order formation between individuals or within groups. It focuses not only on the social order but also on the individual's behavior. Today, traditional morals have relaxed, so that acts regarded as "moral" are dependent on context. This type of situation is commonly called pluralism of values. Therefore, self control is of moral significance in the sense that it requires reflecting on the effect of one's conduct toward others. I have already clarified two principles of self control. The purpose of this article is to focus on two types of inter-personal relationships which apply to the 2 principles, and how characteristics of these two types of relationships appear in communication between children. An appraisal=regulative principle or "la contrainte" regulates the relationship between "the same other" and self. On the other hand, a discussible=adjustable principle or "la cooperation" adjusts the relationship between "the alien other" and self. Originally, J. Piaget proposed these two concepts-critisized "la contrainte" and asserted "la cooperation", then explained relations between the 2 principles as "decentralisation". As a means of "decentralisation", discussion among children was also stressed by Piaget. To clarify how this discussion can be effective, I will cite 3 discussion records as examples and examine them. This will also clarify how the children's self-other relationship changes.
The purposes of this paper are to report a new practice for teachers and to clalify the significance of it. The practice was performed for the first time at my lesson of educational methods with the university students. The main purpose of the practice was to identify the teachers' skill to understand and comment on others' lived world. The lived world in this case was represented by one's favorite things in all fields. The "lived" world is originally the term of phenomenology which this paper is based on theoretically. To comment on others' own lived world we must understand not only their world but also our own world. Through the practice, we could get a concept that the ability to encounter other's lived world is one of the most important ability for teachers. In conclusion, this paper is an enterprise to present a new practice of commenting for teachers education.
It is said that we should consider four levels of teaching-learning process when we make a teaching plan. They are educational content, teaching material, teachers' behavior and condition of learners. In this case the educational content means concept, rule and generalization to be taught. And the teaching material is the means to teach the content with. Recently some researchers proposed that the educational content should be considered to be not only the concept to be taught but the knowledge learned by the student. They say that such knowledge and concept exist in our brain and work for us to make inference, think, solve problems and so on. I propose to make a distinction between the educational objectives and the educational content instead of the modification of the concept of the educational content. The reason is as follows; Teachers prepare many kinds of teaching materials to teach a concept. It is impossible to explain the fact without the concept of educational objective. Teachers use many kinds of teaching materials because they want to get different kinds of objectives -not only knowledge but comprehension, application, and so on. And also teachers actually try to get many kinds of general and content-independent objectives as well as the objectives connected to the educational content. I also discussed on the level of learners. There are two issues to be discussed. One is that of cognitive process of students. Another is that of students' learning activity when they learn. My second proposition is to add the level of the students' leaning activity as well as that of the educational objective to the four levels of teaching-learning process. The reason is that students learn many things exactly through their own learning activity.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the structure and property of the concept of "practicality and fictionality" (advanced by Masakazu Ishikawa) that expresses duality of children's activities, and to consider its significance for personal development. For this purpose, I tried hypothesizing following three aspects to grasp the concept of "practicality and fictionality" and arranging this concept along each aspect. 1. Aspect of motivation or purpose in activities, 2. Aspect of objectivity in activities, 3. Aspect of cooperativity in activities. Among today's children, dominant activities are the ones in which practicality and fictionality are separated or in which these two are adhered in distorted form. Therefore, in educational practice, it is demanded that children's activities are reconstructed in the view point of practicality and fictionality, and that the significant activities for personal development are created.
The purpose of this paper is to study play and imagination in relation to early childhood education by discussing Caroline Pratt's theory on play. In 1914, Pratt opened the Play School in Greenwich Village, New York, in order to develop creative imagination in re-creating and learning about environment. Pratt noted that the trips to the neighborhood would stimulate creative responses among children. The more closely children observe a tugboat, the more deeply they are stirred by it, and the more eagerly and vividly they strive to re-create it in play. Pratt clarified play and creative imagination as follows: (1) Play is the process by which the child's experience is expressed and organized. (2) Play is enriched as further experinence including primary and vicarious information becomes available. (3) Development of play requires adaptable materials that can serve creative imagination. (4) In play, creative imagination is to combine with planning, manipulation, and construction to produce an "educative experience". (5) Adult understanding of the child's maturity level and growth becomes the base line upon which materials and experience are provided. By studying the above-mentioned Pratt's theory on play, we would have a better understanding of developing creative imagination through play which children reproduce the real world in their own way.
This article examines the concept of "Self-Government" in early times after World War II. Now, children's participation is often discussed in Japan from the view point of children's rights. Children's participation has two kinds of meaning. First, it has a function of personality formation in democratic society. Second, it has a function of identity formation of children themselves. These meanings also suggest that children's positive participation needs for children's self-governing activity. The other, children's participation in actual educational activity and in school administration and management accelerates the children's self-governing capacity. In this sense, children's participation are closely connected with the formation of children's self-governing capacity. Then, it's necessary for us to examine the past educational practices which based on children's self-governing activities and to foresee the realization of school committee which composed of parents and teachers and children. In this point, the educational practice of Katsuji Ishibashi were intended to the realization of children's self-government from prewar to postwar period. His guiding principle were based on the view of formation-of the children's self-governing capacity. Especially his practical feature were plan of school committee ("gakko iinkai") that composed of parents and teachers and children. From now on, this practice should be examined by the view of children's self-government and children's participation. So, I will examine and discuss the practice of Katsuji Ishibashi concerning the children's self-governing activities during the postwar period (1945-1950).
In this paper, I analyze the lessons of Norito Yamamoto. The main purpose is to pick up some peculiar 'understanding ways' or, in other words 'methods of the approach to history', not seen in the past 'cause and effect' history education. It was clarified that four patterns were seen from the story of teacher initiation to the story of students initiation in the lessons structure since the history lessons of Yamamoto (For all 64 hours) were analyzed. In the history lessons of Yamamoto, the acquisition of 'story literacy' is aimed at extremely systematically. In the effect it was able to extract two understanding methods, oneway, understanding by 'NAZORAE' (Likened) and the other way, understanding by 'HAMEKOMI' (Set). The history is essentially stories and two ways of understanding I extracted depend on the story charasteristics of the history. The author wants to locate the history lessons of Yamamoto with "Rivival of the story in the history education".
The five fundamental themes represent neither a new geography nor a new approach to geography. These themes were developed substantially in order to offer the conceptual frameworks which teachers of geography could use easily in their classrooms. But they should not teach these themes separately, as different, mutually exclusive topics. Furthermore, it can be insisted that the knowledge of location and place logically precedes the learning of relationships within places, movement, and regions, which is not always the best way to teach geography. It is also possible that geographic classes or courses start with regions or movement, and follow with location, place, or relationships within places. Integrating all the five fundamental themes, other approach starts with another complicated concept such as global interdependence. Not only each theme but also the five fundamental themes as the whole make it possible for teachers to apply on various levels, from local, to statewide, to national, to international, to global. The five fundamental themes should be extended rather than restricted in their applications. The five themes are not a end but a means for teaching. Teachers should not teach these themes but utilize them so as to teach geography. The five themes are a strong tool to organize teaching-learnig activities in geography classes. If these themes are used appropriately, they can be effective means to improve and enrich the quality of geographic education.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the conditions of teaching material that secure the Geography courses in the elementary Social Studies Curriculum through the analysis of two textbook projects, "Macmillan Social Studies (1973)" and "Our Working World (1973)". It has been said that the status of Geography have been slighted in the Curriculum in the United States, as compared with Civics or History Course. These two projects, however, are notable, for their challengings to give certain position to Geography course in the elementary Social Studies program (Grade: 1-6). The results of analysis are as follows; 1) The objective of both in "Macmillan Social Studies" and "Our Working World" is to develop the scientific social cognition. 2) "Macmillan Social Studies" gives Geography units the status of a part of analytic social sciences education, while "Our Working World" gives the status of main part of synthetic social sciences education. 3) These two Geography units are designed to foster the liberal and critical perspective on the society. One is for the world, the other for the United States. 4) All of the above [1)-3)] condition the Geography units to be secured in the Social Studies Curriculum.
In Japan, geometry for 7th graders is treated as a preparation for formal (in a relative sense) geometry. But what is, or, what should be the preparation is a problem for which there can hardly be seen an effective answer in the long history of mathematics teaching. From the viewpoint of the histories of sciences, we can find the steps towards formalizations of their systems. These are 1) Gathering examples 2) Making a catalog or an order 3) Trial to find laws 4) Building its system. Formal geometry is for 4). We should focus on 1)-3) as the geometry for 7th graders. In this article, the concrete examples of class activities will be given.
The expressing activities through sounds, colors and words are the fundamental thing for children. However, as often seen in the teaching of the subject of arts, sometimes as teachers try to direct harder, it results in restraining the expression of children themselves who are the subjects to express. There is the alienation of the spontaneous burst of expression of children and the culture that teachers are going to give them. The purpose of this paper is to show the possibility of overcoming this alienation by bringing forward the teaching of the expression by "Method on the Genetic Principle". For the purpose, first, the expression through sounds was taken as a subject. Through the investigation of the concrete teaching in elementary schools, the features of "the Genetic Principle" are examined. And it becomes clear that "the expressive impulse of children themselves which takes root in the world of living" and the "alterity" are the important elements of the education for fostering expressive children, and the meaning that the experience of expressing has for growing children is shown.
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