Children have come to withdraw softly by degrees into themselves from the society. It seems to us that they are hoping to have to do with others but that they are afraid of being involved in others from the bottom of their heart. These soft withdrawals are caused by avoidance of others and as a resutl of that, shallow selves. In this thesis, two episodes are picked up: a 14 years' boy who killed young children bizarrely in Kobe and high school girls who look themselves in the looking glass elaborately in the train. In the first place, I interpret the crime statement of a 14 years old murderer. He describes himeself as the transparent being. It means his ego who lives in a different world from others and cannot communicate with others. In the second place, I explicate high school girls and show that they are seeking for others' sight but that they will not pay no attention to others' feeling. These episodes show commonly that some children demand and refuse others at the same time. Behind such their contradictory attitudes, weak or shallow selves of children are hidden. Children produce a variety of communication styles adaptative to their way of being. Many children go along easily with others' principles. They represent these accomodations as dependence and tuning. Or they refuse or neglect others. The result is that such attitudes are not the essence of the problems but only symptoms and that we have to pay attention to the anxiety of being themselves. Therefore it is important for us to accept their being.
This paper studies the conception of a sympathy in "Children-Teacher" in order to clarify Intersubjectivity in "Children-Teacher" from the view point of G. H. Mead's conception "assuming the attitude of the other". Intersubjectivity in "Children-Teacher" is the dynamics in the educational practice that teacher's subjectivity and children's subjectivity are involved. G. H. Mead's "assumimg the attitude of the other" had been interpreted to mix with "taking the role" so often. But to begin with, Mead's "attitude" is whole physical tendency. And "assuming the attitude of the other" is the concept of affecting self genesis through the relationship with others. I think, the reexamination of "assumimg the attitude" gives occasion to find the starting point of studying a sympathy in "Children-Teacher". By the way, teacher's meta-consciousness and educational intention distinguish educational relations and other relations. Weather an Informal Program Kindergarten or Formal Program Kindergarten, the practice of Children-Teacher needs teacher's meta-consciousness and educational intention. Basing on this teacher's meta-consciousness, I must study the content of Inersubjectivity in "Children-Teacher". By examinating a sympathy from the view point of Mead, it clarifies that a sympathy is to generate children's self and teacher's self mutually. And in this interaction, Intersubjectivity in "Children-Teacher" may appear.
The purpose of this paper is to exame the structure and issue of literacy education, focusing on the theory and practices in Whole Language. Then, I refer to Carole Edelsky's arguments to retheorize Whole Language, taking notice of the relation between language and power. Kenneth, S. Goodman, who has supported Whole Language theoretically from the beginning, takes notice of minorities who find difficulty in literacy education as skill learning, and then he insists on the literacy education in which they can show 'strengths' in development of language. Goodman exames a mechanism of development of language as the process of balancing between personal invention and social convention dynamically, and then he creates the classroom as authentic environments to acquire literacy, in which children can develop their language, inventing personally. So he attempts to open a Whole Language classroom for minorities. The design of creating a Whole Language classroom which is opened for minorities is one to accept different languages, cultures, and values of all children. But Carole Edelsky points out that Whole Language theorists argue from the premise that all children should acquire same literacy in the end and that Whole Language merely supports the status quo. And then She insists on the switch from literacy based on a process of reading to literacy based on social relations. And She suggests some purposeful distinctions of literacy in school to expose negative possibilities of acquiring literacy. I propose the importance of 'Critique' centered literacy education, according to Edelsky's design of retheorizing literacy education in Whole Language in which she highlights the issues of justice and equality. Then literacy education is designed to read the relation between a person's lived experience and the structuer of society critically and to write a person's voices into the world.
Referring to findings of sociology of science, R. Driver and her colleagues identified both a community of science learners and a community of scientists with a scientific community, which constructs scientific knowledge. From this perspective they defined learning science as a process of "enculturation" using scientific knowledge as "cultural tools". But their concept of "enculturation" has difficulty in analyzing the reciprocal process of constructing scientific recognition at classroom. To overcome that difficulty, this paper aims to reconceptualize "cultural tools" and to understand the reciprocal process in the classroom referring to the J. V. Wertsch's analysis of science classroom. In Wertsch's analysis, one student appropriated her peers' utterances to make her own utterance and other students also did same. These sequential appropriation is essential to make meaning. Thus "cultural tools" are also to be appropriated sequentially because the scientific community evolves scientific knowledge day by day. The process of constructing scientific recognition should be regarded as a sequential and reciprocal process.
The difficulty for schoolchildren to understand the representation of magnitudes by fractions has been discussed in the field of mathematics education in Japan. Many fourth, fifth and sixth graders advocate that the length of one half of a 2-m-long paper streamer is 1/2 m, for example. In this paper, I report three mathematics classrooms of the fourth grade concerning on the difficulty and the efficiency of a number line model so as to surmount it. In one class, a task related to the length of a paper streamer was adopted firstly. Then, students asserted some ideas conflicting with each other and they did not reach an agreement. In the other classes, a task of locating of fractions on the number line was introduced firstly. At that time, almost all students responded correctly without great confusion and the results of posttest suggested that the number line promoted to understand the representation of magnitudes by fractions. If there is a way to reach an agreement without taking a long term, inconsistent ideas in a mathematical classroom can give students a good opportunity to clarify their ideas and "doing mathematics." However, when it is hard to find the way, the process of gradual assimilation and accommodation must be prepared in the course of instruction.
This paper clarifies how school students should be taught the scientific concept of 'nation' by making use of the basic methodology of social science. The author assumes that they would not be able to find out the true meaning of nationalism without gaining the scientific concept of 'nation', and that they can transform their biased consciousness of being Japanese into the scientific concept of being Japanese. One way is to develop the abilities of high school student to criticize the conventional and biased definition of being Japanese. Another way is to let them consider many cases that cannot be explained by the definitions mentioned above. The author creates a new unit plan on the basis of this methodology, especially by learning from Eiji Oguma's studies in the Boundaries of the Japanese, and conducts an experimental class in order to examine how effective the new unit plan is.
This paper aims to examine the models of common curriculum, which were proposed for comprehensive schools in England. First, it shows that there were two models based on the egalitarian principles. According to Model 1, a common curriculum should be organised as a collection of disciplines; whereas according to Model 2, a common curriculum should be organised as a collection of disciplines; whereas according to Model 2, a common curriculum should be designed considering other dimensions (such as 'learning processes' and 'learning environments') as well as disciplines. In order to evaluate these models, this paper reports the results of a comparative study of two comprehensive schools in Birmingham. The research was based mainly on qualitative data, such as interviews with teachers and observation of school life. Oak Tree School employed curriculum policies which were similar to Model 1. It had the strongest restriction on pupils' subject choice, attempting to maximise the number of GCSE passes. The headteacher aimed to promote equality among the pupils, but his focus on GCSE qualifications had produced an authoritarian ethos in the school. On the other hand, Banyan Tree School was primarily trying to promote a democratic ethos, which is similar to the idea underpinning Model 2. At this school too, teachers thought that a certain number of GCSE subjects should be compulsory, but they offered more freedom of subject choice to their pupils. In order to prevent pupils' subject choice from being influenced by their social backgrounds, the school was challenging pupils' stereotypes by offering positive role models. The school curriculum included more elements of vocational education, and those of personal and social education. As a result, Banyan Tree School seemed to be more successful in promoting equality than Oak Tree School. Lastly, based on this study, this paper explains what the limitations of Model 1 are and the advantages inherent in Model 2.
The purposes of this paper are to clarify the principles behind the teaching strategies of the psychology courses in high schools and to consider the place of the psychology courses in the curriculum of secondary schools. In this paper, the author tries to evaluate The Human Behavior Curriculum Project (HBCP) developed in 1981 by the American Psychological Association in collaboration with high school teachers. The project director is John Bare. The units of the HBCP is consisted 8 modules which are Natural Behavior in Humans & Animals, Changing Attitudes, States of Consciousness, Language & Communication, School Life & Organizational Psychology, Conditioning & Learning, Social Influences on Behavior, and Studying Personality. Each unit has a students' text book and a teacher handbook. The results of the analysis are: 1) the purposes of the HBCP are teaching how the human behavior is observed systematically, that there is enough regularity in human thought and behavior, and that human psychology has diversities as well as similarities; 2) the role of psychology courses in secondary schools is teaching how we use the principles of the psychology to understand why do people as they do; 3) the study of psychology promotes students' self-recognition; and 4) this self-recognition is necessary for students to be responsible adults.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the logic of the introduction of fractions in the textbooks of arithmetic which were published in the period of textbook authorization system in the Meiji era (1886-1904), focusing on the explanation of the meaning of fractions. Fractions have two aspects. One is the ratio aspect and the other is division aspect. If we explain these aspects simply as two separate meanings of fractions, the explanation is insufficient. Even if we adopt one aspect as the definition of fractions, we must explain the other aspect and show the identity of these two aspects. In the above-mentioned textbooks, we can see that this viewpoint is adopted and is given a concrete shape and that the various methods are taken in the explanation. In the history of mathematics education in Japan, these facts are notable. At present, we should regard these facts as precious materials for the study of the teaching of fractions.
This paper analyzes the view of `experiments' proposed by Gentaro Tanahashi in his teaching theory of science. The paper deals with the 'laboratory method', which attaches importance to 'students' experiments'. Tanahashi introduced the 'laboratory method' to Japan; and it became popular across the country with his efforts. The original idea of 'students' experiments' in the 'laboratory method' that Tanahashi learned when he was studying abroad was based on H. E. Armstrong's 'heuristic method'. When Tanahashi came back to Japan, however, he adjusted the 'laboratory method' by emphasizing children's 'self-activity' in science lessons, in order to deal with the practical problems in science education at that time in Japan. We can find Tanahashi's emphasis on children's 'self-activity' in science lessons even before he studied abroad. Tanahashi's method of 'students' experiments' was produced as a result of fusion of the idea of children's 'self-activity', which he had already had before he studied abroad, and Armstrong's 'heuristic method'. Tanahashi's main contribution to teaching theories of science was that he properly theorized the development of 'self-constructivity' (self-constructive ability) in the structure of science lessons. Experiments are indispensable constituents in science teaching. Children can develop very effectively both intellectually and mentally by experimenting for themselves. Tanahashi argued that teachers' proper guidance before and after experiments is necessary for the success of science experiments. He maintained that after 'students' experiments', teachers should help children systematize the knowledge obtained from the experiments; and that by this help, children's intuition based on 'self-activity' could arrive at clear concepts about the laws of nature. Tanahashi's view of 'experiments' showed the importance of the relationship between children's 'self-activity' and teachers' proper teaching methods, and the effectiveness of the 'heuristic method' in 'students' experiments'.
In these days, the Integrated Study over time is regarded as quite important, because Japanese children tend to have little experience to play and inquire. Therefore, it is supposed that we should introduce the integrated study to our school curriculum in order for the children to inquire a variety of topics. The author points out that we have the problems of study lesson approach in Japan. Particularly, the most serious problem is that the approach is limited to only one period of time. Within such a short time, we would have difficulties in discussing what the class thought and felt. The protocol analysis should be connected to other classroom practices. Rather than that, he believes it important to take a long time approach in that we find out the inquiry process of the children. Following the Dewey's idea, the classroom practices should be analyzed by using the frame of both inquiry and communication. In addition, the author would like to propose the five steps as follows. (1) suggestion, (2) conception, (3) construction, (4) performance, (5) Valuation. He also tries to apply the five steps in discussing the integrated study practices of Heiichi Yamaji, the teacher of the Elementary School attached to Nara Women's Normal School. He concludes that Yamaji thought it important to introduce playing such as shop, saw and others, because there is inquiry in its activity.
Influenced by the Art Education Movement, the practitioners of Singing in elementary schools from the Taisho era to the early Showa era had constructed teaching methods on basic skill training both theoretically and systematically. On the other hand, influenced by the New Education Movement, they also tried to improve their methods to get children's interest. However, Singing didn't change to child-centered education and still chained with essentialism. Because they gave priority to teach the contents based on essentialism to get social acceptance.
This paper analyzes how music education in elementary schools was influenced by the unit study method and how it was integrated into other educational activities during the postwar educational reform, using the magazine Kyoiku Ongaku (The Educational Music) published by Kyoiku Ongakuka Kyokai (The Association of Music Teachers). This paper shows that there were some different phases in the application of the unit study method to music education. In the first phase (1946-48), music education consisted chiefly of singing songs as it was during the prewar period, mainly due to inadequate educational facilities. In the second phase (1949-52), the range of music activities was expanded, for example, using musical instruments, records, etc. Moreover, the unit study method was often applied to curriculum of music under the influence of the core-curriculum movement. Some teachers produced experimental practices in which music education was integrated into other kind of activities such as investigation, craft, poems and dances. However, not a few teachers opposed such a trend. They maintained that the unit study method was an obstacle to the acquisition of basic skills and knowledge which was indispensable for music education. Central concepts of integrative various activities were also unclear. In the third phase (1952-1960), the opposition against the unit study became dominant. Although a small part of teachers adopted the method, the experimental practices that sought the integration with other kind of activities was almost renounced so as not to obstruct the acquisition of basic skills. Here we can see the persistent ideas that music education should be essentially the reproduction of the existing music and need the acquisition of basic skills to perform the reproduction finely.
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