I am researching the Aso region to clarify the multilayered area of the regional circular and ecological sphere and the method for its construction. The largest area is the basin of six class A rivers flowing down from the Aso region as a regional circular and ecological sphere. Approximately two million people live in this basin, and 2.3 million people in the Fukuoka metropolitan area also use its water resource. The population of the Aso area, which is the source of the water, is about 210,000, and it is estimated that the population will be reduced by half by 2050. In the Aso area, there are more than 20,000 hectares of semi-natural grasslands, which play a significant role as a groundwater recharge area. The area of the grasslands is decreasing year by year due to the aging of the people involved in maintaining and managing them, and it is predicted that more than half of the grasslands will be lost by 2050 compared to 2003. To halt the decline in grassland areas, it is necessary to reduce the amount of labor required for burning at the end of winter.
This paper examined the genealogy of “Circulating and Ecological Economy - Regional Circular and Ecological Sphere” policies, and discusses the issues in the history of these policies, which were based on resource recycling and biodiversity policies, and encompassed policy issues such as energy problems, economic growth through the environment, and decarbonization. However, this policy concept is a coined word combining Chinese characters. The meaning of the word has historicity and is understood with a sense of the times. As a result, the policy has been described with subtle fluctuations. It is also clarified that Aso’s grassland conservation activities are functioning as a autonomous system of community, rather than a self-reliant system.
Aso Oguni-gun, Kumamoto Prefecture, which consists of Oguni Town and Minami Oguni Town, is forming a Regional Circular Ecological Sphere (Regional CES) through the use of woody biomass. Based on a case study of Aso Oguni-gun, this paper discusses the formation of a Regional CES based on woody biomass from four perspectives: 1) time axis, 2) spatial axis, 3) effective use of existing resources, and 4) disaster response. It was shown that it is important to have a roadmap based on an accumulation of policies and initiatives and a long-term vision, to have cooperation beyond/among local governments, to make effective use of existing resources, especially those of private businesses stakeholders, and to stock locally produced energy such as firewood for emergency use in times of disaster.
This paper attempts to clarify the value of commons (IRIAICHI) in the Aso region by looking at the changes in the reasons why membership holders protect the land. Although Aso region still has about 22,000 hectare of grasslands, but it is difficult to maintain by themselves, so the method of maintenance and management has been changing to one in which not only the membership holders but also volunteers are involved. Based on the findings obtained through interview and literature reviews. It will summarize the background of the change in the value of the commons. And report the reality that the current commons have become lands that the membership owners cannot feel benefit of, and cannot be protected as their property.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the fiscal policy changes brought about by the differences of attributes of governors. Especially, the analysis focused on changes in local governments’ expenditure around 2000 by using panel data of prefectures from 1991 to 2015. The analysis results show that public investment was reduced more under governors who have the attributes of Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) and other ministries than other governors. The results also show that public investment was cut more under governors who had the MIC and other ministries, and fiscal discipline was brought about. This result suggests that governors with a central bureaucratic background has brought fiscal discipline to their regions in response to changes in national fiscal policy.
This paper clarifies the mechanism of Continuity of community businesses such as shopping support projects in depopulated areas by case study. These businesses are facing a decline in users and business operators. Therefore, to continue social business, they are implementing operational assistance from local governments, securing other sources of income, or cost reduction by unpaid work. The analysis suggests that support and cooperation can be obtained when the supporter or organization finds the cost of maintaining a community business reasonable. However, the judgment includes not only the objective judgment by the local government but also the judgment by the individual’s subjectivity.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the process by which attachment to the team and attachment to the community are related among core fans of Fighters. An interview and written questionnaire surveys were conducted among the fans, and Kinoshita’s (2020) modified grounded theory approach (M-GTA) was used to analyze their responses. As a result, two findings were obtained: First, there was a process by which local residents’ attachment to the community provided them an impetus to become core fans of the team and enhanced their team attachment. Second, there was a process by which the Fighters has become a symbol of the local community, leading to the increase in fans’ attachment to the team. These results point to the importance of enhancing the reputation of the team among local residents in the management practices of a professional sports team and suggest that building good relationships with the media and the team’s community contribution activities may be necessary to enhance local residents’ attachment to the team.
Over the past decade, community leaders and municipal authorities in Japan have viewed community development as a crucial measure to improve the local economy, enhance community activity, create employment, and increase social capital. It is also widely recognized that community development to require supports especially from an external party. Thus, in this paper, the concept of outsiders or external parties discussed in previous community development studies is reviewed. The author proposed four quadrants model explaining diversities of outsiders. The findings revealed that outsiders to the community including recent proposed “related population” can be classified into four segments by balance of produce and consumption and ownership of local resources. Finally, this study can contribute to the formation of community policy and the development of day-to-day local community management.