In this paper, it is discussed neuropsychological interests of writing disturbances in handwriting, typewriting, and so on. Japanese typing system is different from foreign countries' one, because it is used Roman character-kana letter conversion in typewriting in Japan. Furthermore, Japanese people take flic-input method when they input words into their smartphone, and there are also differences between typewriting and flic-input method. Here, two patients were presented with many "Aha!", one was dystypia, the other flic-input disturbances.
Lastly, the author introduced the short history of Neuropsychology Association of Japan, with hoping advances of the Association and members!
The neuroradiological considerations about the site of lesion and pathomechanisms of aphasia caused by cerebral vascular disease were discussed. The pathophysiology is different between brain infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage. In brain infarction, embolic infarction and atherothrombotic infarction show different features.
The most common cause of aphasia is the brain infarction in the territory of the middle cerebral artery. It is considered that typical aphasic syndromes are observed in embolic occlusion. Broca's aphasia occurred with the lesion including both Broca's area and the precentral gyrus. On the other hand, the patient who has the lesion restricted to Broca's area show transcortical sensory aphasia. Broca's area is perfused by prefrontal and precentral artery, and central sulucus is the territory of central sulcus artery. Typical Wernicke's aphasia occurred in the embolic infarction of the temporal and parietal region, where is perfused the inferior group of middle cerebral artery.
Borderzone infarction, one clinical type of atherothrombotic brain infarction, may occur in the case of arteriosclerotic occlusion of large artery of brain such as internal carotid artery. Anterior type borderzone infarction will produce transcortical motor aphasia, and the case of the posterior type may present transcortical sensory aphasia. In the case on superficial borderzone infarction, the infarcted region is usually detected by CT or MRI. In the aphasic patient, however, the reduction of the cerebral flow and metabolism measured by SPECT or PET may occur more extensive than the lesion observed morphological examination. In the patient of deep borderzone infarction, severe aphasia may occur rarely. The marked reduction of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the left cerebral hemisphere will be observed in these cases.
Brain bleeding in the basal ganglia is called putaminal hemorrhage. Aphasia can occur in the patient with putaminal hemorrhage when mass effects due to hematoma or brain edema influence to the language area of the dominant hemisphere.
Cerebral infarction accounts for~60% of the total stroke, and causes 73,000 deaths every year, total number of patients is 1.8 million, and annual medical expenses exceeds 1 trillion yen in Japan. The number of patients is increasing and cerebral infarction became a serious problem from the viewpoint of the national medical economy. Even with the current sophisticated treatments including thrombolysis and thrombectomy, more than half patients get disabled. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a new treatment to enhance recovery and restore the lost neurological functions. Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are endogenous stem cells with pluripotency, collectable as pluripotent surface marker, SSEA-3, from various kinds of sources such as the bone marrow, adipose tissue and dermis, as well as from commercially released cultured fibroblasts. After transplantation, Muse cells recognize the injured site through their specific receptor for damage signal, home preferentially into the tissue by intravenous injection and spontaneously differentiate into tissue-compatible cells to replace the lost cells, and repair the tissue, delivering functional and structural regeneration. Based on these unique properties, the simple strategy; collect Muse cells by SSEA-3, expand them and treat patients by systemic administration is available. In this report, we describe current status of stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke, and the development of new therapies using Muse cells.
A case of palinopsia, metamorphosia, and abnormal motion vision caused by right posterior cerebral artery infarction was reported. A-69-year-old right-handed male showed left homonymous hemianopia and various symptoms on vision. For example, when he saw an object, the image of that object persisted in the left visual field after he looked away from it (i.e. palinopsia). His palinopsia continued intermittently for two weeks. Furthermore, he experienced transient metamorphosia. When he saw letters, the letters were perceived larger than that actual size in the left visual field (i.e. hemimacropsia). He also had abnormal motion vision a few times. When he saw people turning left in front of him, he noticed that they were moving faster than actual velocity (i.e. time acceleration phenomenon). Brain MRI revealed hemorrhagic infarction in the territory of right posterior cerebral artery. These symptoms may be associated with an irritative phenomenon resulted from instability and altered cerebral blood flow in the perilesional area.