The main purpose of this paper is to make a comparison of children's school atlases between U. K. and Japan. They play significant roles in geographic education of both countries. If teachers make good use of them, pupils will form mental images of the world through the learning of world regional geography. The auther exhibit their characteristic features by means of a comparative method. The result of this study is summarized as follows: 1) «Atlas One» published by Collins Longman in 1980 in U. K. is one of the first atlases for primary schools. «Social Studies Atlas» published by Teikoku Shoin in 1988 in Japan is the most common atlas for the fourth, fifth, and sixth grade pupils in elementary schools. The former has 3 general maps of U. K. They contain 10 symbols: 1 road, 2 railway, 3 built-up area, 4 peak, 5 spot height, 6 river, 7 place name, 8 regional boundary 9 scale, 10 compass The lattear has 5 general maps of Japan. They contain 16 symbols. The symbols from number 1 to 9 are the same as the former atlas. From number 10 to 16 are different: 10 land contour, 11 submarine contour, 12 shipping route, 13 longitude and latitude, 14 settelment, 15 prefecture boundary 16 other symbols (port, airport, mine, etc.). The latter has more kinds of symbols than the former. 2) The auther showed 2 general maps, “England, Wales & Southern Scotland” in «Atlas One» and “Southwestern Part of Honshu” in «Social Studies Atlas» to the third grade pupils of the auther's elementary school class. They could find the distribution of towns and the morterway network on British map. The Japanese map had so many symbols and place names, however, that they could not find these elements on it. One of the children said that the symbols and place names of Japanese map were in confusion. 3) It is necessary for atlases to be edited based on obvious thought or philosophy. The absence of it throws maps into disorder. The immediate task of geographic education today is to plan new atlases for beginners of geography.
According to the author's observation, the private motorization seem to play a important role to urban sprawl. Especialy, after 1985, we can see these phenomena in the new shopping zones along the main roads in the suburban areas such as Gifu city. This phenomenon is a new type of urbanization. Development of teaching materials of the urbanized phenomena is very important for social studies because the majority of the population lives in urban area and its neighborhood. Therefore, in social studies, it is necessary to develop teaching materials, about urbanization. In this report, the author tries to investigate urban sprawl from the geomorphological point of view. The author utilizes a formational model of the alluvial fan in order to make clear the mechanism of urban sprawl. The ideal picture of this model is shown in Fig. 1. The correlation of many factors between the author's model and urban sprawl is shown as follows: (1) fault mountain=urban area (2) alluvial fan=rural area (3) fan head=nordal point between urban area and rural area (4) main stream=main road (5) braided streams branching off from main stream=lanes branching off from main road (6)tractive force=urban impact (7) characteristics of alluvial deposits=characteristics of urban sprawl The expansion of urban sprawl are brought when: (1) the bridge beyond the river toward rural areas is built. (2) the interchange of the high way is constructed in rural area. (3) the bypass between urban areas is constructed. (4) a ticket gate at the rail way station is new built. (5) the tunnel through into the mountain toward rural areas is constructed. The author emphasizes the geomorphological point of view for developement of teaching materials in social studies.