We sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (COl) gene of three honeybee species of Borneo, Apis
cerana, A. koschevnikovi and A. dorsata, and carried out phylogenetic analyses considering geographic genetic
variation. We also compared the sequence divergence-geographic distance relationships among the three species.
Estimated genetic differentiation was an order of magnitude larger in A. koschevnikovi than in A. cerana and A.
dorsata. Migratory nesting behavior and cold tolerance of each honeybee, and the paleoclimate of the Southeast
Asian tropics, are discussed as factors that produced these characteristics for mitochondrial genetic markers, and
conservation prioritie sare recommended.
A study on the canopy ant fauna was carried out at a selective logging area in the Danum Valley Concession Area
of Sabah, in East Malaysia. Ants were collected from four single and isolated Shorea johorensis trees (their crowns
are separated by sufficient gaps from other trees). Three sampling techniques were employed: hand sampling,
branch clipping, and baited pitfal ltrapping. The firs ttwo methods were carried out in tree crowns that had been cut
down, while the third method was done on the ground. Pitfall trapping was employed to eliminate ground-level ants
around the tree from the species list of tree crown ants. A total of 160 species (4889 individuals) in 35 genera
belonging to 6 subfamilies was collected from canopy strata of the four trees. Among all species collected in this
study, only two were common to the four trees .The similarit yin species composition between trees was very low (C
= 0.09 to 0.26). However, the species diversity in each tree proved relatively high (H'= 2.56 to 3.09). The effect of
canopy fragmentation on ant fauna is discussed.