We describe the standardization of nanotechnology by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). ISO/TC229 was established with three working groups (WGs) in 2006, which are “Terminology and nomenclature,” “Measurement and Characterization,” and “Health, Safety, and Environment.” Now, the Technical Committee (TC) consists of fiveWGs, including two WGs on “Material Specification” and “Products and Applications”standardization. IEC/TC113 was established in 2008. The TC consists ofeight WGs. WG1 (Terminology and Nomenclature) and WG2 (Measurements and Characterization) are joint WGs between ISO/TC229 and IEC/TC113. Joint WG2 published18 documents onsixpriority areas (“Nanocarbon Materials,” “Engineered Nanoparticles,” “Nanocoatings,” “Composites and Porous Structures,” “Basic Metrology,” and “Reference Materials”) and nineprojects are currently being implemented. The WGs have been established in Nanotechnology Business Creation Initiative to develop standards for the measurement of nanoparticle size and distribution. The results of the round-robin test are presented in the document “ISO/DIS 19749 Nanotechnologies̶ Measurements of particle size and shape distributions by scanning electron microscopy.” Furthermore, Japan (NBCI and AIST) led the Study Group on tiered approach tonanomaterial characterization. From now on, the ISO/ TC229-IEC/TC113 joint WG2 will develop the documents related to the measurement and characterization of various nanomaterials and general nanoparticles for use in nanoproduct distribution.
In information technology, it had been problem how to handle text data expressed as handwritten or printed matter. Today, with the global progress of information technology, text data has been changing to be expressed using information technology from the beginning. To ensure interoperability of text data, it is important to standardize the universal character set. This paper describes the trends in the standardization of universal character sets, focusing on Kanji and Emoji.
The Japan Color Certification System complies with ISO international standards and provides certification based on Japan Color, which is the canonical standard for printing color in sheet-fed offset printing in Japan. The Japan Color Certification System consists of “Offset Process Control Certification,” “Color Matching Accuracy Certification,” “Proofing System Certification,” “Proofing Process Management Certification,” and “Digital Printing Process Control Certification.” Good or bad printed matter has traditionally been determined on the basis of how it looks, and printed matter has been created in the absence of clear standard. In most cases, printing companies respond to demands for color reproduction by clients, designers, etc., by repeated revisions and reprinting. The lack of a canonical standard for creating printed matter and a certifying organization has been the major cause of such a situation. Thus, in order to facilitate the widespread use or adoption of Japan Color and facilitate standardization of printing to avoid unnecessary revisions and reprinting and other relevant purposes, the Japan Color Certification System was established, and is being overseen or managed by a fair third party organization.
The growth of the digital printing technologies in recent years has created new business opportunities and given threaten for the commercial printers.｠ The development of digital printing technologies is great impacts on commercial printers in terms of customers have an alternative for short-run and personalized print and it is growing in the specific print market such, on-demand and variable data printing (VDP). The main question is what is the acceptance of commercial printers in the development of digital printing technologies and what will happen to the future of commercial printers. The aim of this study is to explore the adoption of digital printing technologies among commercial printers in Malaysia. The study conducted is based on a qualitative approach. There were four commercial printers have been interviewed to respond the questions related to the business opportunities on their investment in the digital printing technologies. The finding of the qualitative analysis has revealed that the commercial printers have to adopt the digital printing technologies. It is also found that commercial printers have been transformed into a competitive business in terms of the need to develop a new print product, provide value-added, enhance customer relationship, and expand the new print market.
This paper reports the current status of Philippine printing industry. The printing industry is one of the major contributors in the growth and development of the Philippine economy despite the difficulties it is facing. It was observed that the industry is a decade or more behind its Asian neighbors and so in 2015, the Philippine Center for Print Excellence Foundation, Inc. together with the Center for Business Research and Development of De La Salle University came up with the first roadmap for the Philippine printing industry.
Printing education has made significant progress in Southeast Asia over the last 15 years. The paradigm has been totally changed by yearly development. The Indonesian and Malaysian printing industry have entered the information technology era. The main challenge in this industry is the stiff competition in printing quality. Since the academiaand industry share the vision and mission of the Government and Printing Association, the printing companies in both countries are unified by their pursuit of the same goal. Small and medium enterpriseshave also changed their mindset from labor-based to innovation-based. They have also shifted their focus from processing aspects to product aspects.. The processing aspect today has been replaced by technology, and a large number of workers/laborers is no longer needed in this area. Automation in production will decrease labor cost and optimize production in terms of cost value. The consequence of technology implementation is standardization in the field of education. Vocational education has become the new trend in industry, and this model will boost the industry for future development. This research shows that both Indonesia and Malaysia lack engineering expertise to support this industry. Within this collaborativeresearch, we developed a collaboration program called Asian Printing Training Center that compensates for academic weaknesses through industrial strength, and industrial weaknesses through academic strength. Thailand is our referencefor developingMalaysia and Indonesia. In the end, our hope is that the Asian Printing Training Center Project will help other countries upgrade their human resources quality and skills to meet or reach the Asian standard.