Kyushu is an important area to discuss the chronology of Initial Jomon pottery and the change of living patterns from the final Paleolithic era to the early Jomon era. In recent years, however, researchers have been losing the common chronology of Initial Jomon pottery in the western Japanese archipelago, which includes Kyushu. To solve this problem, the author regards variation in ornament making as the criterion to distinguish pottery chronology. In addition, this paper makes the chronological order clear by identifying differences in location and site contents, and reconstructs the chronology of Initial Jomon pottery in the Western Japanese archipelago. In South Kyushu, liner-applique pottery changed from pushed liner-applique to cut liner-applique like the feathers of arrows. Following, in South Kyushu, Initial Jomon pottery continued from nail-marked pottery to Iwamoto type. By comparing the transition of pottery in South Kyushu, this paper shows the chronology of Initial Jomon pottery in the western Japanese archipelago. This can be distinguished in five stages, and gradually shows regional characteristics. Especially, in stage V, it is difficult to find any distinct connection between Kyushu and Honshu via pottery. Mainly, this paper establishes two points with the chronological study of pottery. First, the impact of 'heavy nail-marked pottery' from Honshu produced nail-marked pottery in Kyushu in stage IV. Nail-marked pottery shows up in independent comparison. Second is the high possibility that the bottom of the oldest liner-applique pottery was flat. This work is the basis to consider a parallel relation of chronology between the western and eastern Japanese archipelago. This detailed time scale of the chronology of pottery is effective to understand the life history from the final Paleolithic era to early Jomon era in the Japanese archipelago, and this can be utilized in many cases.
Up to the present, the population of the Edo period has been chiefly researched by consulting documentary historical materials. However, chances are limited because the number of existing documents is small, and from the viewpoint of privacy. Therefore, this report is an attempt to determine the changes in population of Edo period from gravestones. From gravestones located in temple cemeteries at Shinteramachi of Hirosaki, Aomori Prefecture, it has been observed that they were generally built 16 years after someone's death. In this case, the Buddhist names, etc., of a group of people who have already died are carved together. The latest date of death in the group was examined to determine the year the stone was erected, and in 24% of the cases there was a time difference of 20 years or more from the earliest date inscribed to when it was erected. The increase and decrease of the death toll was examined from the gravestones and kakocho (necrology) in the Tsugaru district. As a result, it was clarified that the population changes indicated by the gravestones synchronized with those indicated in the kakocho. In addition, a negative correlation was confirmed between the gravestones and Shumon-ninbetsucho (the religious registered records), and the effectiveness of early modern gravestones as materials of historical demography was proven. In Hirosaki and its surrounding areas in the 18@th century, one in two or three people who belonged to a family temple could build a gravestone. It is thought that most people were able to build gravestones from about the 1830's. The change in the number of gravestones has been analyzed in this paper from the researched examples of various places other than Hokkaido, Kyusyu, and the Shikoku region, which it divided roughly into three kinds. The number of gravestones increases rapidly in the Kinai area in Nara and Kyoto etc, in the first half of the 18@th century. On the other hand, there is a peak in East Japan between the end of the 18@th century and the 19@th century. The tendency is a little different between the Tohoku region, and the Kanto, Hokuriku, and the Tokai regions in East Japan. It is thought that this originates basically in the gap between the times the gravestones became prevalent and the difference of the changes in population caused by famine.
Herajo sekki (spatula type stone tool), a type of stone tool in the Jomon period, was named after characteristics of its shape, and is classified as a tool for digging earth or for processing hide. As analysis on use marks has being accumu-lated in recent years, it is now considered a tool for processing hide by whittling. Soki (end scraper) which coexisted with herajo sekki, , is also a tool for processing hide, however, its operation method is different as it is used for scraping. It seems highly probable that Jomon culture had at least two types of hide processing tools, and different tools were used according to the purpose of hide processing.
The purpose of this article is to reconstruct distribution of stone material, via study of utilization of production places in the Yayoi period, existence of transit village in stone material trade, and relationships between production sites and consumption sites in distribution of stone tool material. Results of the analysis demonstrated that: 1) There was a striking change in the composition of production places in the Kuribayashi period in late Middle Yayoi, based on analysis of production place analysis; 2) Also, the period saw diversification of production place composition within the same basin; 3) In late Middle Yayoi, most stone material brought from the production place was consumed in stone tool manufacturing; 4) Late Middle Yayoi saw a lack of examples of accumulation of stone materials both indoors and outdoors, stone material became small, and a reduction of the amount in excavated stone materials; and 5) Transit villages did not exist between the production site and consumption site. Thus many drastic changes took place in late Middle Yayoi, and the concerned period lacked "acquisition and distribution systems by organized groups of people" at the production site, including mining activities for stone materials. It could be assumed that by the emergence of cylindrical beads, comma-shaped beads, and polished stone axes as trade items in the period, obsidian as stone material ended its role as a reciprocal trade item for maintaining relationships between groups.
This article discusses analytical results on relationships between villages on plateaus and hills in the Yayoi period and valleys below them. In the past, studies of Japanese archaeology were based on a premise that wet rice paddy cultivation became common in the Yayoi Period, and it was assumed that villages on a plateau or hill had rice paddies in the valley below them. However, rice paddies in the valley tend to yield less harvest due to damage caused by cold spring water when used directly for farming. Some kind of measure was necessary, but a clear example has yet to be found. Also, even rice fields in valleys in the present day yield less crop compared to other places. They are also less stable, therefore, it was concluded that rice paddies in valleys did not yield stable harvests to sustain higher elevated villages in the Yayoi Period. For sites for which rice fields were not confirmed, wells are excavated. Based on this analysis, the relationship between a village and valley should be regarded as based on household water as the primary purpose. Examination of subsistence systems related to rice paddies in valleys was proposed as a future topic.
This article aims to examine effective ways of conservation and use of cultural heritages in Mongolia, focusing on local people's view of them. This research was carried out at Kharkhorin sum, Ovorkhangai aimag in Mongolia. I had observations and interviews with local people there. Kharkhorin sum is located in Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape, which became a World Heritage Site in 2004. In the center of this sum, there are the ruins of Kharakhorum City, which was the capital of the Mongol empire, and Erdene Zuu Monastery, built in the 16th century. As a result of this research, cultural heritage has both an economical and cultural value for the local residents. Local people expect economic effects from heritage tourism. And they also need the information of their cultural heritage. But, under the present conditions, both the cultural and economic benefits are insufficient for them. The effective way to solve this problem is to organize the local residents and develop the preservation and utilization system of cultural heritage sites with local people leading. And public administration, museums and schools also play an important role in educating local residents. It is important to make a relationship between and foster cooperation of administration, local government and local community.
It is envisaged that the Japanese policy for underground cultural properties: "Recording as Preservation"has resulted in a vast amount of archaeological data created by numerous rescue excavations. In the meanwhile, the use of ICT has been dramatically increased in archaeology during the last decades. For example, archaeological data were recorded digitally, manipulated in databases, input in GIS software, and published electronically. It is obvious that the data created by salvage excavations are increasingly available in digital format. However, there has been very limited literature regarding the current state of archaeological information in Japan. This paper illustrates the results of the Digital Data Survey for Japanese Archaeology (JAD2) Part II conducted in 2006. It encompasses the questionnaires for individual field archaeologists working for the Archaeological Research Centre (Maizo Bunkazai Centre). The survey uncovered the use of ICT in rescue archaeology and the user needs of field archaeologists. Although the result included detailed information, the response rate was disappointing. It is now necessary to undertake comparative studies of similar surveys in related cultural subjects undertaken both in and outside Japan. As a result of this project, a new project has been launched. A group called "ACT Archaeology" is attempting to submit a recommendation for are-run of the survey to some big archaeological organizations. The submission of a petition signed by those who are interested in the plan is underway. The group aims at proactive archaeology by making aprogressive action in order to improve present archaeology.
This article is an excavation report of Jikidoin at Saidaiji temple. Saidaiji temple was constructed by Koken Daijo Tenno, and it was said it had a huge property of 31 cho at three/four bo, one jo, Ukyo, Heijokyo. Its Jikidoin was assumed to be located at eight tsubo, three bo, one jo, Ukyo. According to Saidaiji Shizai Rukicho, Jikidoin consisted of a dining hall where the monks had their meals, and other buildings such as"Tono (place for offering), ""Oidono, " "Kuriya, ""Konarabikura (storehouse), "and" Kurashiro." Archaeological features related to Jikidoin were excavated in good condition, and major buildings and bo/jo were confirmed. The two west and east buildings constructed on foundation stones excavated from the southwestern part fit the size of each"Oidono"and"Tono, "and they are assumed as such. Also, a building assumed as"Konarabikura"and a gate which was supposed to be the northern gate of Jikidoin were excavated from the north of Oidono. Based on these results, the location of Jikidoin was confirmed, and in addition, an arrangement of facilities where a dining hall, Tono, Oidono, and Konarabikura were lined on a south to north line on the axis of the block were reconstructed. On the east of the major building of Jikidoin, buried jars were found lined from south to north. It is assumed that over 80 jars were stored in total, with four lines from east to west, each line consisting of 20 jars. This indicates that there were storage facilities within Jikidoin. Also, from the southeast of Oidono, the oldest well of the Heijokyo was excavated. Various artifacts such as a wooden tablet with a date of the 11th year of Enryaku, pottery with ink writing, salt making pottery and so on were found from the soil buried in the well. The discovered wooden tablets are the new material for the study of ancient temples that lack ample data, since they names foods and the manor that sent them, and suggests distribution and management of food within Saidaiji.
The fiscal 2006 excavation of the historic site, Tokutanjo stronghold remains, was conducted on an inner area of the west gate of the outer castle at its 65th excavation. The area sits on the western rim of the terrace where the site was located, and a wetland is found to the west. The research was conducted with an aim to understand archaeological features in a wetland environment. As a result, it became clear that there existed multiple studio facilities. These had two studios and annexes that were surrounded by a ditch, and the wetland environment in the west area was studied. In between the two studio facilities, a well was discovered, and from the bottom of the well, a "wooden helmet" which was converted to a bucket, was excavated. The surface of the wooden helmet was painted with black lacquer, and its shape, style, and size were similar to iron helmets from the end of the Kofun Period. The C-14 dating on the lac-quer was measured as 640-690 cal. AD. Also, it was found that the top board of koto was converted and used in the wooden framing of the well. It is worth attention as an indication of Ritsuryo ritual in a stronghold.