We evaluated the relationship between colorectal neoplasms and visceral obesity using computed tomographic colonography and adipocytokine levels. We included 123 patients and classified them into four groups as per computed tomographic colonography: no lesion (NL; n=40), adenomatous polyp (polyp; n=41), early colorectal cancer (eCRC; n=21), and advanced CRC (aCRC; n=21). We also measured the patients' serum metabolic markers and adipocytokine levels. The visceral adiposity index in the polyp and eCRC groups was significantly higher than that in the NL group. Visceral obesity is an important risk factor for the development of colonic polyps. Computed tomographic colonography could be a useful examination technique not only for diagnosis of colorectal neoplasms but also for simultaneous evaluation of visceral obesity.
A 67-year-old woman presented with anemia. Computed tomography and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a primary gastric cancer with tumor embolus in the portal vein, liver metastasis, lymph node metastasis, and pancreatic involvement. Because curative surgery was deemed impossible, we started chemotherapy using S-1 (120 mg/m2/day for 3 weeks, followed by discontinuation for 2 weeks) plus cisplatin (80 mg/m2/day on days 1 and 8). After 4 courses of chemotherapy, the tumor embolus in the portal vein, liver metastasis, lymph node metastasis, and pancreatic involvement had resolved. Therefore, we performed distal gastrectomy. Histological examination revealed ypT1a, ly0, v0, ypN0 (0/49), ypCY0, ypStage IA, with a two-grade histological change in the main tumor after chemotherapy. Postoperatively, she underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 for 1 year (120 mg/m2/day for 4 weeks, followed by discontinuation for 2 weeks). At the 30-month follow-up after the adjuvant chemotherapy, she had no recurrence.
A woman in her 80s had two episodes of ileus, which led to the diagnosis of advanced jejunal cancer. She was diagnosed with Lynch syndrome when she was in her 60s, for which she underwent annual follow-up with computed tomography for 8 years. Unfortunately, she died from the recurrence of jejunal cancer and liver metastases. Jejunal cancer is relatively rare in Lynch syndrome, and no surveillance strategy has been established for small bowel cancer. In patients with unexplained abdominal complaints, small bowel cancer should be considered.
Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC), a rare subtype of adenocarcinoma, has a high incidence of lymph node metastasis and is associated with a poor prognosis. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for the assessment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). We diagnosed her with pancreatic cancer concomitant with IPMN and performed pancreaticoduodenectomy. The lesion was predominantly composed of ductal adenocarcinoma with a micropapillary component. On immunohistochemical analysis, a characteristic " inside-out pattern" was observed in the micropapillary component. This confirmed the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer with a micropapillary component. In the present report, we describe a very rare case of IMPC of the pancreas.
Hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a rare adverse event of chemotherapies based on high-dose 5-fluorouracil. We present a woman in her 70s with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent FOLFIRINOX therapy. She developed acute onset disturbance of consciousness after completing the first 5-fluorouracil infusion cycle (2400 mg/m2/46h). We suspected hyperammonemic encephalopathy induced by 5-fluorouracil and administered branched-chain amino acids solutions and she recovered within a few hours of treatment. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no abnormal findings. She subsequently received chemotherapy with gemcitabine and developed no further hyperammonemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of FOLFIRINOX-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy in a patient with pancreatic cancer.
An 87-year-old woman was diagnosed with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the pancreas by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration. Complete remission was achieved after treatment with six courses of R-CHOP chemotherapy. However, two and a half years later, she was readmitted because of weakness during walking. At this time, laboratory tests revealed hypercalcemia associated with high plasma levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), but bone lesions were not detected. Although computed tomography only revealed splenomegaly, we suspected a recurrence of her malignant lymphoma because she also had marked elevation of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Bone marrow examination revealed the involvement of Burkitt's lymphoma cells with malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that hypercalcemia was caused by a paraneoplastic syndrome related to PTHrP-producing B-cell lymphoma cells. Unfortunately, the patient's general condition rapidly deteriorated, and she died soon after admission. Our case is unusual because of the presentation of bone marrow relapse of malignant lymphoma.
A 49-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of severe epigastric pain. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography revealed an arteriovenous malformation of the pancreatic uncus. Because of unbearable epigastric pain, transcatheter arterial embolization was performed with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Subsequently, his symptoms fully resolved; no recurrence of the arteriovenous malformation was seen more than 1 year after the embolization.
A 29-year-old man with ulcerative colitis presented to the hospital complaining of persistent back pain. Pancreatic enzymes and tumor markers were elevated; imaging showed diffuse narrowing of the main pancreatic duct associated with diffuse pancreatic enlargement. We therefore performed an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy of the pancreas using a 19-gauge needle. Histopathology revealed interlobular fibrosis, neutrophil infiltration in the intralobular ducts and acini, and very few immunoglobulin G4-positive cells. The patient was diagnosed with type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis and started on oral steroids; subsequently, we observed an improvement in the pancreatic enlargement and duct narrowing. Histologically proven type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis is rare in Japan.