A 49-year-old woman visited a local hospital in October 2007 with complaint of fever and melena. Abdominal ultrasonography and abdominal computed tomography revealed an irregular mass in the lower abdomen, together with multiple masses in the liver. She was admitted because of anemia, and the high fever was determined to be an inflammatory response. Blood tests revealed elevated biliary enzyme levels. Percutaneous biopsy of the liver mass was performed, which revealed liver abscesses caused by Streptococcus constellatus. On abdominal angiography, the mass was suspected to be a tumor of the small intestine. In late November 2007, laparoscopy-assisted partial small bowel resection was performed, and pathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the small bowel. Because reports of small intestinal GIST with liver abscesses caused by Streptococcus constellatus are rare, this case description could provide valuable information.
A 45-year-old woman with persistent abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Detailed examination revealed a type 4 lesion with circumferential narrowing, which was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated carcinoma following forceps biopsy and ascitic fluid cytology. Although the lesion was surgically resected, the ascites increased rapidly, and her general condition deteriorated in the postoperative period. She died 6 weeks after the appearance of her symptoms. Autopsy and histological examination confirmed a very rare undifferentiated colon carcinoma with rhabdoid features, which is a high-grade malignant lesion associated with a poor prognosis.
A 60-year-old woman underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for an abnormality identified during routine examination. The lower gastric corpus showed a type 0-I elevated lesion with a faded mucosa and an area of converging mucosal folds in contact with the lesion. Biopsy indicated the former to be a high-grade adenoma and the latter to be a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. At the same time, Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. Eradication therapy was administered to manage the MALT lymphoma; this resulted in improvement after 3 months. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed for the elevated lesion, and subsequent histopathology showed contact between the MALT lymphoma and gastric cancer. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with a collision tumor. Concurrent cancers are increasingly reported and should be considered during examination.
A man in 60s underwent total gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer with para-aortic lymph node metastases. Although postoperative chemotherapy decreased the metastases, he was subsequently admitted with progressive respiratory distress. Pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure developed, and he died of sudden cardiopulmonary arrest 30 hours after admission. Autopsy revealed widespread tumor embolism, fibrocellular intimal proliferation, and thrombus formation in the small arteries, consistent with a diagnosis of pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) associated with gastric cancer. Although PTTM a rare clinicopathological entity that causes severe pulmonary hypertension, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis for acute dyspnea or pulmonary hypertension in patients with carcinoma, regardless of clinical improvement.
A 70-year-old man with multiple liver tumors was referred to our hospital in 2011. He was histologically diagnosed with a neuroendocrine G1 tumor (World Health Organization classification) following biopsy. He had a history of surgery for an ileal neuroendocrine tumor in 1991. Therefore, the liver tumors were diagnosed as metastases from the ileal neuroendocrine tumor. The patient was successfully treated with hepatic artery embolization, radiofrequency ablation, and octreotide. This report suggests that long-term follow-up with diagnostic imaging may be required for patients with ileal neuroendocrine tumors, even 20 years after the primary surgery.
A 64-year-old man presented with diarrhea, fever, and disturbance of consciousness; he was subsequently diagnosed with acute renal and hepatic disorder. Abdominal computed tomography identified a gas-forming liver abscess, and the patient underwent emergency drainage. However, his condition did not improve, and Clostridium perfringens was observed in his blood culture. Continuous perfusion drainage was performed by placing an additional drainage tube, which resulted in abscess shrinkage and improved the patient's general condition. Despite the low survival rate in patients with gas-forming liver abscesses caused by C. perfringens, therapy was successful in this patient.
Erythema multiforme (EM) is a known side effect of sorafenib therapy in cancer patients; at onset, the causative medication should be permanently discontinued. Here we report two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that developed sorafenib-induced EM. In both cases, retreatment with sorafenib combined with steroid therapy achieved effective tumor control without EM recurrence. The first patient was a 72-year-old woman who showed a dramatic response to sorafenib retreatment, with complete remission after 8 months of therapy. There was no rash recurrence after the steroid dose was gradually tapered and stopped. The second patient was a 69-year-old man who responded to sorafenib and exhibited stable disease, with no recurrence of the rash after the steroid dose was tapered. However, mild hand-foot syndrome persisted throughout sorafenib therapy. Although sorafenib should be discontinued if EM occurs, if there is no suitable alternative treatment, retreatment may be considered with steroid cover in patients with unresectable HCC.
The pathogenesis of intravascular lymphoma (IVL) remains inadequately understood. Furthermore, its prognosis remains extremely poor despite combination chemotherapy. Lymphoma cells and hemophagocytosing cells are commonly observed in the livers of IVL patients and less frequently in the bone marrow. We recently encountered an 83-year-old female and a 78-year-old female with IVL, both of whom presented with fever of unknown origin. Following examination, we decided to perform random liver biopsy for diagnostic purposes. The former patient died because of rapid tumor growth, while the latter achieved remission following treatment with a modified R-VNCOP-B (etoposide, mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and bleomycin plus rituximab) regimen. Considering the possibility of IVL is important when examining a patient presenting with fever of unknown origin. This report demonstrates that random liver biopsy represents a useful diagnostic strategy, particularly in patients with elevated liver enzyme levels.