A 67-year-old male was diagnosed with advanced esophageal cancer. A computed tomography scan showed multiple intra-abdominal lymphadenopathies. Because the tumor was thought to be unresectable, we initiated chemotherapy. Twelve months later, the patient was admitted to our hospital because of hematemesis. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed oozing bleeding from the esophageal tumor. Hemostasis was not achieved with conservative treatment, and frequent blood transfusions were required. Endoscopic hemostasis was difficult to achieve because of the malignant esophageal stenosis. To treat the malignant esophageal stricture and esophageal tumor bleeding, we attempted to insert an esophageal covered self-expandable metallic stent. After the procedure, hemostasis was achieved by mechanical tamponade. Here we report a rare case of esophageal tumor bleeding that was managed with mechanical tamponade using an esophageal covered self-expandable metallic stent.
A 65-year-old male visited our hospital because of fever and difficulty in walking. He was suffering from left-sided hypochondrial pain for a month. Laboratory tests performed on admission revealed a white blood cell count of 1700/μl and C-reactive protein level of 9.51mg/dl, which were suggestive of severe inflammation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a subphrenic abscess around the spleen, which we considered to be caused by gastric penetration into the gastrosplenic ligament. Upper esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a gastric ulcer together with a fistula that connected to the left subphrenic abscess. We thus performed endoscopic transgastric drainage through the fistula. Antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor were administered, and drainage was continued. The patient's clinical and inflammatory symptoms subsequently improved. We thus consider that endoscopic transgastric drainage is an appropriate treatment option for subphrenic abscesses.
Here we report the case of a 73-year-old male who had undergone esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) at a nearby hospital or at our hospital every year since 2006. In 2013, EGD results revealed a discolored lesion, measuring 6mm in diameter, on the anterior side of the upper body in the stomach. Helicobacter pylori (HP) was eradicated in 2010, and the background mucosa around the lesion was endoscopically diagnosed as non-atrophic. We performed endoscopic biopsy of the lesion. Histological examination of the specimen confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type. Based on the findings of EGD, ultrasonic endoscopy, and upper gastrointestinal series, we diagnosed that the infiltration of the adenocarcinoma was limited to the mucosa. Hence, we performed endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). After ESD, the resected cancer was located in the mucosa and no invasive lesion was detected at any vessels. Therefore, complete resection was performed through ESD. Retrospectively, the lesion could be detected in the endoscopic images taken in 2006. The shape and diameter of the lesion did not seem to have significantly changed from 2006 to 2013. In this case, slow tumor progression was observed. In 2015, no new lesions in the stomach or metastatic area were detected. Here we report a rare case of gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type that showed very slow progression.
A woman in her 50s was admitted to our hospital because of multiple tumors detected in her liver. She was diagnosed with combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy of the liver tumors. We judged the tumors to be unresectable because they were found in both lobes of the liver, with a tumor thrombus being found in the main left portal vein. The pathological findings showed that the tumors exhibited characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, sorafenib was administered;however, 6 months later, the disease progressed. Consequently, she received second-line chemotherapy with a one-shot intra-arterial injection of cisplatin, but this too was ineffective, and her general condition worsened. As hence, we changed the regimen to 5-fluorouracil continuous infusion and consecutive low dose cisplatin (LFP) therapy. After one cycle of chemotherapy with LFP, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI showed markedly decreased sizes and numbers of tumors. To date, she has completed six cycles of LFP therapy, and almost all her tumors are no longer visible on MRI. She has recovered to a good state and has achieved long-term survival. Thus, this case indicates that although LFP therapy is generally selected for cases of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, it also appears to be effective for long-term disease control in cases of hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma.
A 73-year-old man with a hepatocellular carcinoma was admitted to our hospital. He suffered from recurrent severe hypoglycemia. An autopsy was performed after his death. Anti-insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) monoclonal antibody immunostaining of the hepatocellular carcinoma was positive. Western immunoblot analysis of the serum revealed highly elevated IGF-II. Therefore, we diagnosed this case as a non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia caused by a big IGF-II-producing hepatocellular carcinoma.
Adenosquamous carcinoma of the duodenal papilla is rare. A 73-year-old man was referred to the Saiseikai-Matsusaka General Hospital with upper abdominal pain and liver dysfunction. Computed tomography (CT) revealed dilatation of the common bile duct (CBD) and intrahepatic bile duct along with a tumor in the distal CBD. The tumor showed enhancement in the arterial phase on contrast-enhanced CT. We performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and noted a red, erosive, bleeding mass in the duodenal papilla with obstruction of the distal CBD, and dilatation of the CBD. Histopathological inspection of a biopsy of the duodenal papilla showed a mixture of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, suggesting the presence of adenosquamous cell carcinoma in the duodenal papilla. Abdominal examinations including positron emission tomography/CT showed no metastasis or lymph node swelling. The clinical stage was determined to be cT2N0M0 Stage IB. We performed subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathological inspection of the specimen showed a mixture of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 40% of the tumor. The tumor was defined as pathological Stage IIA, AcbBd, mixed type, med, pT3b, sci, INFb, ly2, v1, ne2, pN1, HM0, PM0, EM0, PV0, A0, R0, pT3N0M0. We suggested adjuvant chemotherapy, but the patient declined adjuvant chemotherapy and wished to be discharged. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed multiple liver metastases 3 months postoperatively. The patient opted for best supportive care and died 9 months postoperatively. Examination of 23 reports of adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the duodenal papilla in Japan suggested that adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the duodenal papilla has a poorer prognosis compared with adenocarcinoma of the duodenal papilla. Some reports have stated that the growth rate is faster for squamous cell carcinoma than for adenocarcinoma. In our case, the tumor was enhanced in the arterial phase and this represents a feature of adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the duodenal papilla. Chemotherapy has not been established for adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the duodenal papilla. We are confident that we can establish effective chemotherapies in the future.