Upper gastrointestinal (GI) lesions are frequently reported in Crohn's disease, in which the entire GI tract is affected. In these cases, erosive fissures regularly transversing folds that are longitudinally aligned along the lesser curvature of the gastric body and cardia are described as having a "bamboo joint-like appearance". We designed a blinded experiment in which upper GI imaging without a final diagnosis was checked by three observers to determine the usefulness of the bamboo joint-like appearance in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. For the three observers, sensitivities of appearance were 30.5%, 56.9%, and 51.4%, while specificities were 99.6%, 98.5%, and 99.3%. Thus, the bamboo joint-like appearance was not useful for the identification of Crohn's disease patients. Nevertheless, patients exhibiting the bamboo joint-like appearance in upper GI imaging should undergo further examination due to the high probability of Crohn's disease.
A 77-year-old Japanese man underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection twice over a 5-year period for the treatment of two separate early gastric cancers. He had been taking lanthanum carbonate, an orally administered phosphate binder, for 3 years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed reddish mucosa in the greater curvature and anterior wall of the gastric angle, while granular, white deposits were also observed in some areas of this reddish mucosa. Additionally, biopsy specimens from the gastric mucosa revealed the deposition of fine, amorphous, eosinophilic material, which appeared bright on scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed the presence of lanthanum and phosphate in these bright areas, and elemental mapping confirmed that their distribution was identical to that seen in the bright areas. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of lanthanum phosphate deposition in the gastric mucosa was determined.
A man in his 60s with epigastric pain was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis and subsequently recovered following conservative treatment. However, because of repeated upper abdominal pain and the formation of a pancreatic pseudocyst, he was transferred to our institution for evaluation. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) scanning confirmed abnormal vessels in the tail of the pancreas and early venous return to the splenic vein in the early arterial phase. Abdominal angiography revealed a racemose vascular network in the tail of the pancreas, confirming the presence of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in this region. This AVM was thought to be the cause of the acute pancreatitis, so a distal pancreatectomy was performed. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and there has been no recurrence at the 7-month postoperative follow-up. Surgical resection has a low recurrence rate and good outcome;thus, if a pancreatic AVM appears difficult to treat with conservative medical therapy, surgical resection appears to be the definitive treatment.
A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital on suspicion of liver tumor on regular abdominal ultrasonography. The abdominal ultrasonography identified a solitary, low-echoic lesion measuring 17mm in diameter in S7. This lesion was not enhanced in any phase of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and thus we performed a liver biopsy. Histopathological examination revealed a caseating granuloma. The chest CT showed pulmonary nodules, and Mycobacterium intracellulare was cultured from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We diagnosed the individual with a Mycobacterium avium complex infection, and suspected that this was the cause of the solitary liver lesion.
A 71-year-old man was referred to our hospital and was diagnosed with jaundice and a liver function disorder. Although we suspected an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB)-derived caudate branches on the basis of contrast-enhanced CT, MRI, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, we could not clearly identify the tumor. Therefore, we examined the lesion using endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). We could visualize an iso-hyperechoic elevated tumor in the caudate branches. The tumor was observed as a hypervascular lesion using contrast-enhanced EUS, which is useful in preoperatively diagnosing IPNB and detecting the presence of lesions.
A 65-year-old woman with recurrent breast cancer was repeatedly treated with bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF antibody. In addition, she was also frequently prescribed a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for abdominal pain. Melena was revealed 2 months after the final treatment with bevacizumab, and an endoscopic study revealed a duodenal ulcer (DU) that was resistant to anti-ulcer therapy. A cholangiography identified a biliary-duodenal fistula with bile juice leaking from the ulcer base. Therefore, a biliary stent was placed into the common bile duct for 3 months until the DU healed. This is the first case of a refractory DU with a biliary-duodenal fistula in a patient treated with bevacizumab.