Capsule endoscopy (CE) and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Although CE and DBE provide access to the small bowel and OGIB can be effectively treated by the identification of specific bleeding lesions, some patients experience rebleeding after small bowel investigation. There are no definite algorithms to determine the best follow-up period for patients with OGIB. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term outcomes and risk factors for rebleeding and to develop a follow-up strategy for patients with overt OGIB. Among 386 patients who underwent CE for OGIB at Nagoya University Hospital between June 2004 and December 2015, 318 patients with overt OGIB were enrolled in this retrospective study. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for rebleeding were analyzed, and a predictive model for the same was developed. Rebleeding occurred in 45 patients (14.2%) during a median follow-up period of 16.8 months. Multivariable regression analysis identified the following factors as significant independent predictors of rebleeding:vascular lesions seen during CE, transfusion requirement, and patients aged ≥60 years. The predictive model for rebleeding was developed using these factors to identify patients who had a high risk of rebleeding and to provide useful information to physicians in clinical practice. The C-statistic of the predictive model was 0.698. A risk-based approach to follow-up patients with OGIB can help clinicians determine a follow-up period for patients after small bowel investigation.
A 65-year-old man was admitted under emergency to our hospital because of abdominal pain. His current medication history did not include steroids or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. He had taken an eradication agent for Helicobacter pylori, and his serum was negative for H. pylori IgG antibody. Abdominal computed tomography indicated gastric perforation;therefore, emergency surgery was performed. Two weeks later, esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a gastric ulcer on the lesser curvature of the gastric angle and bezoars. The gastric perforation was thought to be caused by the bezoars. The bezoars were successfully treated with endoscopic therapy using Coca-Cola®. The bezoars included over 98% tannin, and the patient had frequently consumed chestnuts. We thus diagnosed a rare case of gastric perforation caused by chestnut bezoars.
An 87-year-old woman with a 4-month history of postprandial gastrointestinal obstruction was admitted to our facility after suddenly vomiting black matter. Computed tomography and esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric prolapse and prolapse of the duodenum and transverse colon. Morgagni hernia combined with esophageal hiatal hernia was diagnosed. Gastric and duodenal obstructions were successfully repaired by endoscopy, followed by laparoscopic repair. Endoscopic repair helped the patient avoid fasting before surgery. The patient had a history of several chest bruises, which were detected by chest X-rays and suspected to be the cause of the hernias over time.
The patient was a 73-year-old man who visited our department with black stools as the chief complaint. Upper digestive tract endoscopy revealed three type 2 lesions in the lesser curvature of the gastric antrum and the gastric angle and the posterior wall of the upper gastric body, which were diagnosed by biopsy as tub2, por, and sig, respectively. Total gastrectomy was performed. The final pathological diagnosis was quintuple gastric cancer with a main lesion of large-cell endocrine carcinoma and four adenocarcinoma sublesions. We report this extremely rare case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma complicated by adenocarcinoma.
Platelet transfusions are generally administered to patients with liver cirrhosis and associated thrombocytopenia before radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Here, we describe a 77-year-old woman who was diagnosed with hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 2006. She underwent RFA in October 2014 and October 2015, with platelet transfusions. She was admitted to our hospital in July 2016 to receive RFA for recurrence of HCC. To avoid platelet transfusion before RFA, she was administered lusutrombopag. The platelet count increased, and she did not need a platelet transfusion. In November 2016, computed tomography revealed that HCC had recurred. Lusutrombopag was readministered to avoid platelet transfusion before performing RFA. Subsequently, her platelet count increased, platelet transfusion was avoided, with no side effects. The results obtained in this case are valuable because there is little information on readministration of lusutrombopag.
A 61-year-old man visited our hospital for treatment of a retroperitoneal tumor. The patient had undergone distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer in the past. At 5 years after distal gastrectomy, a retroperitoneal tumor with a large diameter of 30mm was detected by computed tomography and the patient underwent chemotherapy for suspected lymph node metastasis from gastric cancer at a local hospital. However, the retroperitoneal tumor gradually increased, and it was diagnosed finally as asymptomatic paraganglioma. The patient underwent tumor resection and made a satisfactory recovery. He was discharged 11 days after the surgery in a good general condition. Here, we report a case of successful resection of asymptomatic paraganglioma in a patient 5 years after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.