The serum Helicobacter pylori titers are good markers for population-based H. pylori screening and treatment programs because the tests used to estimate these titers are noninvasive, inexpensive, and convenient. However, the reference range of 3-10U/mL, which is used as a standard in commercially available serum H. pylori antibody kit E plate Eiken H. pylori antibody II, is regarded as a gray-zone cutoff value to indicate H. pylori infection status. We aimed to clarify the gray-zone cutoff values of H. pylori infection status with new serum H. pylori antibody kits using latex immunoassay. We enrolled 256 patients who underwent endoscopic examination and H. pylori tests at the Inui Clinic of Internal Medicine or IMS Ota Central General Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015. Serum H. pylori titers were measured using Type L Wako H. pylori antibody J (Wako-LIA), H. pylori-latex Seiken (Denka-LIA), and LZ test Eiken H. pylori antibody (Eiken-LZ). In patients with a positive diagnosis of H. pylori infection, the positive diagnostic values (sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value) using Wako-LIA, Denka-LIA, and Eiken-LZ were (94.6%, 86.0%, and 79.1%), (95.7%, 90.2%, and 84.6%), and (85.9%, 92.1%, and 85.9%), respectively;in patients with a negative diagnosis of H. pylori infection, the diagnostic values (sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value) using Wako-LIA, Denka-LIA, and Eiken-LZ were (96.9%, 83.5%, and 85.6%), (96.9%, 78.7%, and 82.2%) and (95.3%, 67.7%, and 75.0%), respectively. In this study, the gray-zone cutoff value indicating H. pylori infection status was between 4.0 and 8.7U/mL for Wako-LIA, between 10.0 and 15.2U/mL for Denka-LIA, and between 5.6 and 10.0U/mL for Eiken-LZ. Therefore, we propose that lower titers of the positive antibody are important to diagnose H. pylori infection using Wako-LIA and Denka-LIA. However, when using Eiken-LZ, high titers of the negative antibody should be considered diagnostically important.
Metastasis of uveal melanoma of the digestive tract is rare. We report a case of a patient with metastatic uveal melanoma of the liver and digestive tract. A 68-year-old man was admitted with primary complaint of appetite loss and fatigue. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a 13-cm diameter tumor in the right lobe of the liver. We diagnosed him with metastatic uveal melanoma. We performed a liver tumor biopsy and diagnosed metastatic melanoma;we found distant metastases in the stomach, duodenum, and rectum on endoscopic biopsy. We administered systemic chemotherapy [DACa-Tam therapy (Dacarbazine, 220mg/m2×3 days;Nimustine, 60mg/m2×1 day;Carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) =4×1 day;Tamoxifen, 40mg/day×3 days)]. Prognosis is unfavorable in approximately half of the patients with liver metastases that occur through blood circulation. The patient died of liver failure two months after the diagnosis.
A 60-year-old female presented to our hospital with anal pain. Colonoscopy (CS) revealed a tumor in the anal canal, which was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by biopsy. Computed tomography (CT) showed multiple liver metastases. From these findings, we diagnosed the anal tumor as stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Although CS and CT indicated disappearance of the primary tumor and liver metastases following chemoradiotherapy, brain metastasis developed during the disease course and was treated with radiotherapy and surgical resection. Administration of S-1 as adjuvant chemotherapy was continued, and the patient has remained alive for approximately six years without recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this case can be considered as having the longest-term survival in stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
A woman in her 70s was diagnosed with a protruding mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma during a secondary health examination. After eradication of Helicobacter pylori, a biopsy revealed gastric follicular lymphoma (FL) and the lesion was still protruding one year later. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed focal nodular hypermetabolic activity, suggesting that FL may have transformed into a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, and capsule endoscopy showed no other lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, and bone marrow biopsy showed no permeation into the marrow. Therefore, this lesion, which appeared as a submucosal tumor, was limited to the stomach. Laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery was performed, because it allows for correct pathological diagnosis while removing only a minimal portion of the stomach wall. Histological findings showed follicular structures consisting of abnormal lymphoid cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that neoplastic cells were positive for CD20, CD79a, Bcl-2, CD10, and c-MYC, but negative for CD3, CD5, and cyclin D1. Finally, we diagnosed this lesion as a primary gastric FL.
An 80-year-old man was examined with esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy because of digestive tract hemorrhage;however, no specific cause was found. Small intestinal capsule endoscopy revealed a reddish elevated lesion in the ileum. This lesion was also detected using double-balloon endoscopy as a 5-cm reddish elevated lesion covered with normal villous architecture in the 95-cm part of the Bauhin valve on the oral side. The lesion was laparoscopically resected and diagnosed as inverted Meckel's diverticulum based on pathological examination. This was a rare case where Meckel's diverticulum was inverted, and the lesion was observed using capsule and double-balloon endoscopies before surgery. Although complications of Meckel's diverticulum are rare in the elderly, it is necessary to identify this disease as a cause of small intestinal bleeding, even in elderly patients.
A 49-year-old man was diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis because of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The pancreatic AVM spontaneously regressed during conservative treatment for severe acute pancreatitis. Transarterial embolization of an aneurysm in an artery branch flowing into the pancreatic AVM was performed using metallic coils, following amelioration of severe acute pancreatitis. The complete elimination of the pancreatic AVM was confirmed 1 year after embolization, and the patient has had no recurrence of pancreatic AVM and pancreatitis for over 6 years. Most cases of pancreatic AVMs with acute pancreatitis require surgical resection. This is a rare case in which the pancreatic AVM spontaneously regressed under the influence of acute severe pancreatitis.