In the present study, the usefulness of the resistance-associated variant (RAV) analysis to select direct acting antiviral (DAA) drugs for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype/serotype discrepancy was evaluated. The core-genotype and serotype were determined in the 559 patients recruited in the study. The RAV analysis and NS5B-genotype determination were performed in the eight patients who exhibited a genotype/serotype discrepancy. One of these patients exhibited a core-genotype 1b/serotype 2, and detection by RAV analysis was possible in this patient. The other seven patients demonstrated a core-genotype 2/serotype 1, and detection using the RAV analysis was possible in four of them. The NS5B-genotype was 1b in all patients in whom detection using the RAV analysis was possible and was other than 1b in patients in whom detection using the RAV analysis was impossible. The RAV analysis could detect RNA sequences specific to genotype 1b in the NS5A region. Therefore, in patients with genotype/serotype discrepancy in whom detection using the RAV analysis is possible, the treatment regimens should be selected based on the assumption that HCV with genome that is highly homologous to genotype 1b is present in the NS5A region.
We conducted a multicenter retrospective study for evaluating the background of and diagnostic opportunity for 651 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The etiologies were hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 20.0% of patients, hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 36.3%, and non-B non-C (NBNC) in 43.5%. The characteristics of non-alcoholic NBNC HCC patients included low frequency of liver cirrhosis and high frequency of life style-related diseases. The mean diameter of HCC was approximately 4cm. Most patients were diagnosed using ultrasonography and dynamic computed tomography (CT). However, 18.6% of patients were diagnosed using conventional contrast-enhanced CT. Compliance with the surveillance program for HCC diagnosis was 35.4% in HBV carriers and 49.2% in HCV carriers. The main causes of deviation from the program included undiagnosed HBV and HCV carriers, non-compliance with the surveillance program by physicians, and no medical care for HBV and HCV carriers. For an early diagnosis of HCC, it is essential to improve the diagnoses of HBV and HCV carriers, promote the follow-ups of HBV and HCV carriers in hospitals, re-educate physicians, and identify the risk factors of NBNC HCC.
An 83-year-old Japanese man underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for screening purposes. He had a medical history of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, and chronic myeloid leukemia, and he had been taking the following medications:ferrous citrate, furosemide, spironolactone, tolvaptan, bisoprolol, nicorandil, warfarin, nilotinib, febuxostat, esomeprazole, digestive enzyme complex, ambroxol, carbocysteine, and potassium L-aspartate. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a brownish speckled pigmentation in the duodenal bulb. Biopsy specimens from the duodenal villi revealed a brown pigment deposition, which appeared bright on scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elemental mapping revealed the presence of iron and sulfur in the duodenal villi. Consequently, pseudomelanosis duodeni was diagnosed based on these findings.
Background:Recently, morbidities due to primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have increased in young Japanese adults because of decreased anti-CMV antibodies in them. CMV infections are typically resolved naturally in immunocompetent individuals, and complications rarely occur. Here we present the case of an immunocompetent adult with CMV infection complicated by splenic infarctions and an esophageal ulcer. Case report:A 37-year-old male complaining of a prolonged fever and liver injury was admitted to hospital for a closed examination. The patient had general malaise and mild appetite loss but no abdominal pain. Symptoms of infectious mononucleosis, including liver injury, appearance of atypical lymphocytes in the blood, and hepatosplenomegaly, were observed. A primary CMV infection was confirmed by CMV-IgM positive and CMV-IgG negative serological tests. Enhanced abdominal computed tomography confirmed hepatitis and splenic infarction, and an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an esophageal ulcer. The patient exhibited no predisposing risk factors for thrombosis, and he was diagnosed with splenic infarctions associated with CMV infection. Because the patient was immunocompetent, he underwent symptomatic therapy without antiviral or anticoagulant therapies. The treatment improved his overall condition. Including the present case, only 11 cases of CMV infections with splenic infarction in immunocompetent individuals have been reported. Contrary to what is observed in immunocompromised hosts, upper gastrointestinal lesions with CMV infection are rare in immunocompetent individuals. The esophageal lesion observed in our patient was a typical punched-out ulcer. The immunohistochemical staining of the tissue biopsies revealed that the ulcer was associated with CMV. Conclusion:Although splenic infarctions and esophageal ulcers are rare, they should be considered as potential complications accompanying CMV infection in immunocompetent individuals. The administration of symptomatic therapy should be considered even when the patient is immunocompetent.
A 67-year-old male patient presented with an irregular mass involving the pancreatic body and tail with multiple liver/lymph node metastases. A biopsy indicated the presence of a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Fever and increased white blood cell count, C-reactive protein levels, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels led to the diagnose of G-CSF-producing pancreatic cancer. The patient did not respond to FOLFIRINOX therapy (leucovorin, fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin), but nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine treatment was effective, resulting in tumor shrinkage and reduced G-CSF levels. After the fifth course of this therapy, exacerbation was noted, and the patient died of primary cancer 6 months after initiating the therapy. Here we report the case of this patient with G-CSF-producing pancreatic cancer who responded to chemotherapy.
A 78-year-old man was referred to our hospital with suspected liver abscess. Fever and inflammatory reaction resolved after percutaneous drainage and administration of antibiotics. However, leukocyte count was remarkably increased, and hypercalcemia was noted. The liver mass was also enlarged, as observed in the follow-up abdominal CT scans. Therefore, a percutaneous needle biopsy was performed, and the histopathological findings indicated the presence of adenocarcinoma. Additional blood examination revealed high serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Lastly, the patient was diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma producing G-CSF and PTHrP. Chemoradiotherapy with S-1 was initiated, which was partially effective. However, the patient died 134 days after initiating the therapy. Only two cases of cholangiocarcinoma producing G-CSF and PTHrP have been reported to date. Here we reported an additional case of cholangiocarcinoma producing G-CSF and PTHrP.