A 78-year-old man with hypertension, nephrosclerosis, and angina pectoris visited his family doctor with a history of fatigue and leg edema. He had a history of percutaneous coronary intervention 5 years prior, and was taking low-dose aspirin. Blood tests revealed hypoalbuminemia, gastrointestinal 99mTc-HSA scintigraphy was positive, and alpha-1 antitrypsin clearance was high;therefore, the hypoalbuminemia was thought to be secondary to a protein-losing enteropathy. A small bowel series revealed multiple, ring-shaped, longitudinal ulcers in the ileum. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy from the anus showed severe stenosis with an ileal ulcer. Since we were not able to diagnose the ulcers, mesalazine and supplemental nutritional care were provided. Four years after the hypoalbuminemia had been diagnosed, the patient died because of pulmonary congestion secondary to renal failure. An autopsy revealed severe atherosclerosis in his aorta and multiple cholesterol embolisms in his small intestine, kidney, stomach, colon, liver, and spleen. The multiple ulcers in the small intestine were thought to be caused by cholesterol crystal embolism, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of small intestinal ulcers in elderly men or patients after cardiovascular intervention.
A 75-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for further examination of swollen lymph nodes and a possible gastric submucosal tumor. He had persistent fever and anorexia. Blood examination showed anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase and soluble interleukin 2 receptor levels. Swollen lymph nodes and splenomegaly were evident on computed tomography, and the submucosal tumor was revealed by esophagogastric endoscopy. Cervical lymph node biopsy and endoscopic biopsy were performed, which revealed a diagnosis of intravascular lymphoma. In Asian countries, patients with intravascular lymphoma often have hemophagocytic syndrome without lesions of the central nervous system or skin, which is called the Asian variant of intravascular lymphoma. In this case, the patient had no indicative lesions and had no evidence of the hemophagocytic syndrome. He also had lymph node swelling and a gastric submucosal tumor, which are rare in intravascular lymphoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy (R-CHOP;rituximab-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone), and complete response was demonstrated (based on the Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumours [RECIST] guideline). In cases of possible intravascular lymphoma, gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy should be considered because they are a useful diagnostic strategy.
Here we report a rare case of a reopened gastrostomy fistula 21-years after spontaneous closure. A male newborn underwent gastrostomy by laparotomy because of esophageal atresia shortly after birth. The gastrostomy tube was removed at 7 months old because he could consume enough oral nutrition. At the age of 21, however, the fistula reopened to form a labial fistula. When he consulted to our hospital, we observed a large skin sore with redness at the site of the fistula, which was caused by gastric outflow. We chose to resect the fistula by open surgery as a reliable therapeutic method in consideration of his future social life. The postoperative course was unremarkable.
A 35-year-old man attended our hospital with complaining of epigastric pain and vomiting. He was diagnosed with bowel intussusception based on the target sign revealed in the upper jejunum by abdominal computed tomography. However, the cause of the intussusception was not clear. Insertion of an endoscope into the jejunum revealed prominent edema in the upper part of the jejunum, and Anisakis simplex was identified at the site and removed. Symptoms rapidly improved after endoscopic treatment. We report this case because surgery was avoidable and because we are aware of no previous reports of small intestinal intussusception caused by anisakiasis that has been diagnosed and treated endoscopically.
An 87-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with early rectal cancer and massive ascites. Tuberculous peritonitis was suspected because positron emission tomography-computed tomography showed high uptake in the hypertrophic peritoneum. A staging laparoscopy was performed and the diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis was established from inspection of histopathological biopsy specimens showing tiny white nodules on the peritoneum, Langhans giant cells, and epithelioid cell granulomas. Tuberculosis bacterium was also detected from this tissue. After 4 months' treatment for tuberculous peritonitis, laparoscopy assisted low-anterior resection was performed. Laparoscopy was used to assess the status of tuberculous peritonitis from before to after treatment, and treatment for rectal cancer was instituted.
We report a rare case of colonic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with rapid growth. A 75-year-old man underwent laparoscopic partial resection of segment three of the liver for primary hepatocellular carcinoma, but was referred to our hospital with right flank pain seven months after the operation. Computed tomography revealed a high-density tumor in the transverse colon measuring 6cm in diameter that not evident by colonoscopy. After one month, magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor had grown to 8cm in diameter, and we performed partial resection of the transverse colon. Macroscopically, the tumor comprised necrotic tissue and an old blood clot in the submucosal layer of the transverse colon. Histopathologically, the tumor was determined to be a hematogenous metastasis from the hepatocellular carcinoma, with evidence of necrosis and hemorrhage.