Since the introduction of direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-based combination therapies in September 2014 for patients with chronic hepatitis-C (CH-C), numerous patients have been diagnosed with hepatitis-C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) during the screening performed prior to DAA therapy. The present study was conducted on the antiviral therapy for CH-C in two phases:i) the interferon (IFN) phase between January 2011 and August 2014 and ii) the DAA phase between September 2014 and September 2016. During the DAA phase, HCCs were detected in eight patients who were referred to our hospital for anti-HCV therapy. In contrast, HCCs were detected in only two patients during the IFN phase. The number of patients with newly detected HCC in the DAA phase (20.5%) who were referred for the anti-HCV therapy was significantly higher than that in the IFN phase (1.7%). Owing to the high efficacy and safety of the DAA therapy, the number of patients referred to our hospital for anti-HCV therapy increased from 40.5 persons/year in the IFN phase to 80.3 persons/year in the DAA phase. The average ages of patients in the DAA and IFN phases were 68 and 61 years, respectively. The increase in the number of patients with newly detected HCC referred for the anti-HCV therapy in the DAA phase could be attributed to the increase in the number of referred patients for anti-HCV therapy and the aging of these patients in the DAA phase. All the eight patients with newly detected HCC who were referred for anti-HCV therapy in the DAA phase received curative treatments. The median age, rate of liver cirrhosis, and median tumor size of the patients were 69 years, 13%, and 16mm. Therefore, the findings of this study indicate that DAA therapies not only eradicate HCV infection but also contribute to the early diagnosis of HCC by encouraging the HCV-infected patients to visit hospitals and by promoting active network between hepatologists and family physicians.
A 79-year-old man experiencing sudden abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and computed tomography images revealed an 8-cm lesion, suggestive of submucosal tumor in the gastric antrum and a type 0-IIc early gastric cancer in the gastric body. The tumor ruptured during preoperative examinations, which necessitated emergency D1+ distal gastrectomy. Pathological findings confirmed the penetration of the gastric cancer into the submucosa. The cancer comprised well-differentiated tubular carcinoma cells with a low papillary structure. At the submucosa, small clusters of carcinoma cells were surrounded by clear spaces. These clusters displayed a characteristic "inside out pattern" on immunohistochemical examination, suggesting that the clusters were probably incipient lesions of invasive micropapillary carcinoma. The ruptured tumor was identified as a lymph node metastasis from the gastric cancer. We herein report this extremely rare case in which lymph node metastasis from early gastric cancer enlarged and ruptured. The findings of this study suggest that the characteristic pathological type identified in this report, which signified high-grade malignancy, was associated with the rupture.
A 40-year-old Japanese man with abdominal pain was referred to our hospital. The patient had been diagnosed with Crohn's disease at the age of 21 years and had since then received treatment with mesalazine and had been advocated an elemental diet. About 30 months before his visit to the hospital, he had swallowed a patency capsule, the retention of which in the ileum was subsequently detected on abdominal ultrasonography. The patient was advised to undergo the evaluation of stenosis, but he refused further investigation at that time. Computed tomography scanning performed at our institution revealed stenosis of the ileum and the presence of a high-density material in the proximal side of the stenosis. Double-balloon enteroscopy and enterography with contrast media revealed multiple stenoses of the ileum. The stenotic ileum was surgically resected, and a foreign body was removed. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that the foreign body was the cellophane wall of the PillCamTM patency capsule. Thus, the retention of the cellophane wall of a patency capsule after consumption was diagnosed for the current case on the basis of the study findings.
A 16-year-old woman identified with colonic distention using chest X-rays visited our hospital. Although abdominal computed tomography (CT), colonoscopy, and barium enema study indicated suspected duplication of the sigmoid colon, the exact portion of communication between the normal colon and the duplicated colon could not be determined. The patient was released, but followed up due to the lack of symptoms. After 7 months, she was urgently re-hospitalized due to the complaint of abdominal pain. Her abdominal CT revealed the wall thickness and distention of the duplication as well as voluminous stool containing barium. After the improvement of her symptoms and on the basis of the inflammatory findings, laparoscopic surgery was performed on the patient. Finally, the lesion was diagnosed as tubular- and continuous-type colonic duplication. Duplication of the colon is a relatively rare occurrence in adulthood. Herein, we report a case of duplication of the sigmoid colon diagnosed prior to surgery in an adult.
A 53-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the complaint of neck pain and dyspnea. His blood examination revealed increased C-reactive protein and amylase levels. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a retropharyngeal and a mediastinal low-density area extending to the portal area. He was diagnosed with pancreatic pseudocyst from the abdominal cavity to the cervical region accompanied by spontaneous rupture into the portal vein. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided cyst drainage (EUS-CD) of the most inferior cavity around the superior mesenteric artery was performed through the gastric wall. No adverse events were recorded during the procedure, and a near-complete resolution of his symptoms and the pseudocyst was achieved.