Endoscopic treatments, including endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection, are well accepted as standard treatments for early gastric cancers. However, there are few studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of this approach for early gastric cancers in patients aged over 80 years, and the post-treatment prognosis remains unclear. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records and evaluated the safety and efficacy of endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancers in patients aged over 80 years (group A) compared with non-elderly patients aged 65-79 years (group B) and under 65 years (group C). In this study, we enrolled 53 patients (mean age, 82 years) in group A, 217 patients (mean age, 73 years) in group B, and 89 patients (mean age, 60 years) in group C who received endoscopic treatment at Kyoto University Hospital between 2001 and 2010. The incidence of treatment-related complications including aspiration pneumonia, bleeding, and perforation was 19% (10/53) in group A, 9.7% (21/217) in group B, and 6.7% (6/89) in group C, respectively. In particular, only the incidence of aspiration pneumonia was significantly higher in group A [11% (6/53) ] than in the other two groups [1.8% (4/217) in group B and 1.1% (1/89) in group C]. There was no significant difference in the curative resection rate and recurrence rate including metachronous lesions among the three groups. In group A, the median survival calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method was 8.0 years, and the 5-year survival rate was 73%. No gastric cancer-related deaths were observed in all groups. In conclusion, endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancers may contribute to an improvement in life expectancy, even among patients aged over 80 years, provided an experienced gastroenterologist selects the appropriate patients based on not only the endoscopic findings for the lesion but also the severity of any comorbidities. However, it is noteworthy that our elderly group aged over 80 years had a high risk of developing aspiration pneumonia.
A 75-year-old female patient with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C was treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) (Sofosbuvir+Ledipasvir). The hepatitis C virus (HCV) -RNA level decreased to negative 4 weeks after the start of the treatment. Six weeks later, she developed ascites and showed declining hepatic spare ability. Accordingly, DAA treatment was stopped. She was started on furosemide 20mg/day and spironolactone 50mg/day. After 7 days, she started taking tolvaptan 7.5mg/day because furosemide and spironolactone proved to be ineffective. This new regimen resolved the ascites. The HCV-RNA level remained negative, although DAA was not restarted. Finally, she achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). The hepatic spare ability at the time of SVR recovered than that at the time of DAA treatment.
An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a space-occupying lesion (SOL) in the liver. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a nodule measuring 20mm in size in the posterosuperior segment of the right hepatic lobe (S7) and another nodule measuring 14mm in size in the anterosuperior segment of the right hepatic lobe (S8). The margins of these nodules showed faint enhancement in the arterial phase and presented as low-density areas in the equilibrium phase. The S8 SOL could not be easily identified using ultrasonography (US). However, the S7 SOL could be clearly identified as a nodule accompanying the marginal enhancement in the early vascular phase and a defect in the late vascular phase using contrast-enhanced US. On gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, both nodules were described as low-intensity lesions in the T1 phase, high-intensity lesions in the T2 phase, faint high-intensity diffusion-weighted images, and clear low-intensity lesions in the hepatobiliary phase. On positron-emission CT, there was no uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in these nodules. Hepatectomy was performed because we were unable to rule out a malignant tumor. Histopathologically, these lesions demonstrated collapsed vascular spaces against a background of rich paucicellular fibrous stroma and were diagnosed as sclerosed hemangiomas. The occurrence of multiple sclerosed hemangiomas is rare and often difficult to diagnose because of variable findings on imaging studies. We report a case of multiple hepatic sclerosed hemangiomas, which was difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Moreover, we have reviewed the literature, particularly with respect to the relevant imaging findings.