A 45-year-old Japanese man presenting with leg purpura, abdominal pain, and arthralgia was diagnosed with IgA vasculitis. His symptoms resolved after the intravenous administration of prednisolone. However, on day 20 of admission, he experienced bloody discharge and hypovolemic shock. The bleeding point was not identified on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning. The blood loss was approximately 10800ml and the patient received transfusions of 48 units of concentrated red blood cells, 18 units of fresh frozen plasma, and 30 units of concentrated platelets. Laparotomy and enteroscopy were performed through the incision of the jejunum to detect the bleeding source. Spurting bleeding was observed during the enteroscopy and partial resection of the jejunum was performed. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed large vessels beneath the jejunal ulcer scar, suggesting bleeding from a Dieulafoy's lesion. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis or cytomegalovirus infection was not observed in the resected specimen. Gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IgA vasculitis usually improve with bowel rest and conservative treatment. Administration of steroids or factor XIII is recommended for patients with severe abdominal pain refractory to conservative management. Rarely, massive bleeding, perforation, intussusception, and/or intestinal obstruction occur in the gastrointestinal tract and these complications affect patients' prognoses. The clinical course in the present patient indicated that severe bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract can occur even after symptom remission in patients with IgA vasculitis. In such cases, prompt treatment, including laparotomy and/or enteroscopy, is essential.
Peripheral neuropathy reportedly develops after a long period of metronidazole administration. Here, we report a case of amoebic colitis in which peripheral neuropathy occurred approximately 24 hours after administering metronidazole. A 76-year-old man presented with mucous and bloody stool. Initially, lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and stool analysis confirmed the occurrence of amoebic colitis, and metronidazole was then intravenously administered. The following day, however, the patient experienced a diminished sensation in a glove-and-stocking distribution in his extremities, followed by bilateral burning foot pain. After the withdrawal of metronidazole, the symptoms improved and finally disappeared 3 months later.
Generally, a colon lesion is evaluated by endoscopy. In many cases, total colonoscopy is often difficult to perform due to postsurgical adhesion. Here, we described a case of a colon tumor that could not be recognized by colonoscopy and palpation under laparotomy. Nonetheless, this tumor could be observed by laparoscopy from the appendix root after appendectomy. Eventually, this tumor was locally resected. The patient was a 79-year-old male who had PET-CT examination to explore distant metastasis before the rectal cancer surgery. In this examination, the ascending-colon lesion was suspected as a malignant tumor. This tumor could not be observed by colonoscopy because of the adhesion from the past history of right pneumonectomy and open cholecystectomy. Nevertheless, the contrast enema at the hepatic flexure of the colon was normal. We then suspected an early colon carcinoma and subsequently performed laparotomy. However, the tumor was not detected by palpation at the ascending colon. Thus, we observed the colon tumor by laparoscopy from the appendix root after appendectomy, followed by local excision of the colon tumor. Therefore, observation by laparoscopy from the appendix root was useful for the diagnosis and treatment of the ascending-colon lesion that could not be recognized by colonoscopy and palpation under laparotomy.
A 68-year-old woman with an 11-day history of sudden abdominal pain and severe watery diarrhea was transferred to our hospital due to an exacerbation of renal function despite hydration. After treatment for dehydration and acidemia was provided in our intensive care unit, patient's renal function improved. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography was finally performed, revealing a hypervascular pancreatic mass with multiple hepatic masses. This imaging finding along with her clinical symptoms indicated watery diarrhea hypokalemia achlorhydria (WDHA) syndrome caused by a pancreatic VIPoma. Somatostatin analog was administered immediately leading to the improvement of her diarrhea and her general condition. As a result, endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration could be performed. Consequently, she was diagnosed with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. She then underwent surgical resection of the pancreatic tumor and liver metastasis. As revealed in the immunohistochemical analysis of the excised tumor tissue, VIP was highly expressed, resulting in the final diagnosis of pancreatic VIPoma. Therefore, the immediate use of a somatostatin analog is crucial for improving the patient's general condition and achieving a definitive diagnosis pathologically when a patient is suspected of having a pancreatic VIPoma.
A 79-year-old male patient had a huge choledocholithiasis that was difficult to remove and underwent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage. He complained of hematemesis upon admission to our hospital. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed bleeding from the papilla of Vater and revealed an upper filling defect with a large stone in the common bile duct. Furthermore, computed tomography detected an aneurysm close to the stone. Considering the occurrence of a ruptured pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm, we diagnosed this condition as hemobilia. Through angiography, we also detected a saccular aneurysm in the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (PSPDA);subsequently, selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was performed. However, bleeding persisted after TAE;therefore, we performed second-time embolization for other PSPDA branches. Consequently, hemostasis was achieved. To date, bleeding has not reoccurred. The pancreaticoduodenal artery constitutes a complex arcade;hence, cases of extremely difficult hemostasis by embolization have been reported. Herein, we have presented a life-saving case of choledocholithiasis treated with TAE for biliary bleeding from a PSPDA aneurysm rupture.