Although standard treatment for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) comprises prednisolone (PSL) and azathioprine (AZA), some patients are intolerant to or do not respond to PSL and/or AZA. The clinical practice guidelines of AIH in Europe and North America recommend mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as second-line treatment in these patients. We administered MMF as second-line therapy to 7 patients with AIH (male/female 1/6, age range 27-79 years) who were intolerant to or failed to respond to standard treatment. At the commencement of MMF, the median ALT value was 84U/L (28-254U/L), and the PSL dose was 15.0mg/day (0-45mg/day). In terms of adverse effects of PSL, diabetes mellitus was observed in 4 patients (insulin injection in 2) and femoral head necrolysis in 2. Adverse effects of AZA were present in 2, and 5 patients were not treated with AZA. At 24 weeks of MMF treatment, the median ALT and daily PSL dose were decreased to 16U/L (6-41U/L) and 7.0mg, respectively. Blood sugar control improved, and insulin injection was discontinued in both the patients. While intractable diarrhea developed in 1 patient with cirrhosis, no adverse effect was observed in other 6 patients. In conclusion, MMF appeared effective and safe in at least non-cirrhotic patients with AIH who were intolerant or failed to respond to standard treatment with PSL and AZA in Japanese clinical practice.
We report the case of a patient with a gastric hamartomatous inverted polyp (GHIP) and discuss the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a slow-growing pedunculated polyp measuring 30mm in diameter, present in the greater curvature of the fundic region of the stomach. It was covered with normal gastric mucosa, and the top was reddish. A biopsy specimen taken from the reddish area;it showed inflamed gastric mucosa with hyperplastic and mildly distorted foveolar glands. Abdominal contrast computed tomography showed a protruding tumor that was unevenly enhanced and contained multiple cystic lesions inside. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS, Olympus GIF-UCT260) showed a heterogeneous tumor with multiple anechoic or low-echoic cystic lesions, originating from the second or third layer of the stomach wall. The patient had no clinical symptoms, no family history, and no laboratory data abnormalities. Based on these findings, we diagnosed her with GHIP. As the polyp had shown an increase in size (5mm/5 years) and about 20% of GHIPs were reported to coexist with precancerous or cancerous lesions, we performed endoscopic polypectomy. The tumor was histologically characterized by submucosal growth of hypertrophic glands with cystic dilatation, accompanied by smooth muscle proliferation, branching from the bundles. Thus, the final diagnosis was GHIP. Though GHIP is a rare and basically benign polyp, the rate with gastric cancer was reported to be relatively high. EUS findings are important for the diagnosis and when GHIP is suspected, the lesion requires to be monitored closely. If there are some signs that suggest a malignancy (growth, changes in surface mucosa, etc.), endoscopic en bloc resection or surgical resection should be considered.
A 57-year-old woman presented with multilocular cysts like a bunch of grapes, 30mm in diameter, in the tail of the pancreas. The number of cysts has increased, and each one had grown. Eventually, they turned into a unilocular cyst with a cyst in the cyst structure of about 50mm in diameter. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was performed, and the resected specimen was diagnosed with mucinous cystadenoma. We report the rare morphological change in this case and consider the mechanism of its occurrence based on pathological considerations.
A man in his 20s visited a local physician because of upper abdominal pain, and an abdominal ultrasonography revealed hepatic tumors. He was then referred to our hospital. The patient had no history of blood transfusion, tattoos, habitual alcohol consumption, or narcotic drug use. Physical examination revealed abdominal fullness. Biochemical tests were negative for hepatitis virus markers and autoantibodies. Liver enzyme levels were high;further, the levels of alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) were elevated. Chest and abdominal dynamic enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans showed multiple lung tumors and multiple liver tumors. An arterial phase contrast-enhanced computer tomography image showed multiple nodular heterogeneous hyperattenuating masses with washout in the equilibrium phase. A huge mass in the right hepatic lobe had a large area of central necrosis. We suspected hepatocellular carcinoma or undifferentiated mesenchymal tumor. Liver biopsy showed moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma without fibrosis in the background liver. This patient was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma that developed in a normal liver. The patient was treated with molecular-targeted drugs. Tumor enhancement decreased;however, the tumor size remained unchanged. The patient lived for 9 months. A search using the retrieval terms "non-hepatitis B virus/non-hepatitis C virus", "non-cirrhotic", "young adult", and "hepatocellular carcinoma" revealed 12 case reports in the Igaku Chuo Zasshi database. Many cases had multiple tumors that were large in size as well as had venous invasion, and surgeries were performed because liver functions were normal. The present case is noteworthy because hepatocellular carcinoma with a non-hepatitis B virus/non-hepatitis C virus and non-cirrhotic background in a young patient is rare.
A 66-year-old man with epigastric pain was admitted to our hospital for further evaluation of a pancreatic mass, as indicated on transabdominal ultrasonography performed by his family doctor. Using various imaging modalities, the 22-mm tumor was diagnosed as a cystic tumor with hemorrhagic necrosis. The tumor diameter reduced to 11mm over the course of 1 month. However, the tumor margin was irregular than that at the initial diagnosis, and circumferential rim enhancement was observed in equilibrium phase computed tomography images. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with a necrotic component. Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed, and the subsequent histological diagnosis was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. This case had an interesting course as described by the diagnostic images.
A 68-year-old man who underwent cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and was diagnosed with gallbladder duct carcinoma was referred to our hospital. Postoperative computed tomography showed thickening of the middle to lower bile duct without any tumorous lesions. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and intraductal ultrasonography revealed irregular wall thickening of the lower bile duct and apparent infiltration of gallbladder duct tumor to the common bile duct without pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed papillary adenocarcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma in the gallbladder duct and BilIN-3 lesion in the distal bile duct. The final diagnosis was biliary simultaneous multicentric cancer without pancreaticobiliary maljunction.