Colonic diverticular bleeding often recurs and requires hospital readmission. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the rate of readmission and the number of hospitalizations due to colonic diverticular bleeding. We retrospectively studied 98 patients first admitted between January 2008 and July 2017 for the treatment of colonic diverticular bleeding. We investigated the subsequent number of hospitalizations due to colonic diverticular bleeding and classified the patients into 3 groups:those admitted for the first time (first group), those admitted for the second time (second group), and those admitted for the third time or later (third group). Generally, the readmission rate increased as the number of hospitalizations increased (P<0.01). The 1-year readmission rates were 11.6%, 23.2%, and 34.2% in the first, second, and third groups, respectively. The 2-year readmission rates were 15.1%, 50.1%, and 62.4% in the first, second, and third groups, respectively. The 3-year readmission rates were 21.7%, 50.1%, and 74.9% in the first, second, and third groups, respectively. Thus, the number of hospitalizations due to colonic diverticular bleeding could be a predictive factor for readmission. We also classified the patients into 2 additional groups:those who had been readmitted (readmission group) and those who had not (no readmission group). Furthermore, we examined background and therapeutic factors, and found hypovolemic shock on admission to be an independent risk factor (odds ratio 14.1). Preventive treatments for such high-risk patients should be considered.
We conducted a questionnaire survey on voluntary inoculation of hepatitis B (HB) vaccine to children at 79 pediatric clinics. The voluntary vaccination rate was 65.2%, the desired vaccination target was "all infants" at 84.8% of clinics, the recommended method was "only when the patient wishes" at a rate of 80.0%, and "actively recommended" at 20.0%. If there was a request, 71.7% of clinics answered that they would like to recommend it in the future, and 38.9% said that it was difficult to recommend it because of the voluntary nature of vaccination. The requests were "expansion of the scope of regular vaccination" at 60.9% of clinics and "enlightenment activities and information provision" at 54.3%. Since it was suggested that voluntary vaccination is difficult to recommend, it is necessary to proactively provide information and public relations activities regarding its necessity to medical personnel and parents.
Although amebiasis is usually asymptomatic, fulminant amebic colitis is associated with a high mortality rate. Here, we report the case of a patient with amebic colitis in which bowel perforation occurred despite treatment with metronidazole. A man in his 70s underwent steroid pulse therapy to treat serious acute hepatitis A. After corticosteroid therapy, he developed acute abdomen because of amebic colitis. We immediately administered metronidazole and his symptoms improved. After completing treatment, he developed colon perforation. Amebic colitis can progress to bowel perforation even after administering the appropriate medication, so this abdominal symptom requires careful attention.
A 57-year-old female with a history of Cowden's disease was referred to our hospital because of black stool, loss of consciousness, and severe anemia. Upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy findings could not confirm the source of hemorrhage. Capsule endoscopy (CE) of the small intestine showed an active exudative hemorrhagic site near the ileum, although a definitive diagnosis was difficult. In a double balloon enteroscopy examination, it was difficult to observe the entire small intestine due to adhesions and the responsible lesion could not be confirmed, even when ink spots were applied to the deepest observation points through the mouth and anus. Hemostasis spontaneously occurred, and then anemia occurred again approximately 1 month later and a second CE examination was performed including passage of an ink stick through the oral side, which revealed an exudative elevated polyp with erosion and a white moss appearance in the ileum. Partial ileal resection was performed and pyogenic granuloma of the small intestine was the diagnosis. We report here a case of pyogenic granuloma of the small intestine associated with Cowden's disease.
A male patient in his sixties with a long-term history of schizophrenia had been received glycerin enema once or twice a week in a mental hospital. He was emergently transferred to our hospital due to fever, vomiting, hematuria, and dyspnea. Laboratory findings on admission showed an elevation of white blood cells indicating inflammation, hemolysis, and renal dysfunction. Plain CT showed pleural effusion and ascites, elevated levels of perirectal fat, in addition to extraintestinal gas. Based on these findings, he was diagnosed with rectal damage caused by the glycerin enema and associated hemolysis with acute renal failure. He was kept under conditions of nil by mouth and received intravenous antibiotics, diuretic drug, and haptoglobin. Eventually, his condition improved with these conservative therapies. In this case, it is assumed that the hemolysis was caused by the influx of glycerin in the cytoplasm and an increase of osmotic pressure. Care should be taken during glycerin enema, which is widely used in daily practice as well as in home care settings.
A 66-year-old man was admitted to our department with hypercalcemia, pancreatic and liver tumors, and periportal lymph node enlargement. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a tumor in the pancreatic tail and the right hepatic lobe along with periportal lymphadenopathy. Laboratory data revealed hypercalcemia and high serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels. Using a 22-gauge Franseen needle, we performed endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle biopsy of the pancreatic mass and an enlarged lymph node. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen revealed moderately to well-differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma with poorly differentiated squamous cell elements, as well as squamous cell carcinoma of the lymph node. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the pancreatic tissue was weakly immunopositive and the lymph node was strongly immunopositive for anti-PTHrP antibody. We diagnosed the patient with pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma with liver and lymph node metastasis, associated with hypercalcemia of malignancy secondary to PTHrP secretion. We administered systemic chemotherapy comprising gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel. Unfortunately, the patient died 8 months after being diagnosed with this malignancy. PTHrP-producing adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas is rare;only 14 cases are reported in the literature. Based on immunohistochemical evaluation, this case report suggests that metastatic lymph nodes may lead to the overproduction of PTHrP in such cases.