Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
Online ISSN : 1349-7693
Print ISSN : 0446-6586
Volume 62 , Issue 12
Showing 1-9 articles out of 9 articles from the selected issue
  • Studies on the histological findings
    Tadatsuna Tabayashi
    1965 Volume 62 Issue 12 Pages 1533-1549_6
    Published: 1965
    Released: June 17, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, the details of a new Clamping-Cortisone (C-C) method for making chronic gastric ulcers in rats and the histological findings are presented. Furthermore, changes of the several values and indices, which were obtained from measuring the size of the ulcer and others microscopically, are also described.
    The method is as follows: The gastric walls of white male rats weighing 250g wereclamped with an aluminium clamp of 12×4mm in size for 24 hours. Animals were given 7mg of cortisone acetate per 100g of body weight for 7 days after the operation. In the control group, cortisone was not given.
    By these procedures, animals developed chronic gastric ulers, which had almost the same size and form, with 100% certainty.
    The macroscopic features of these ulcers were quite a resemblance to those of human beings.
    In the C-C group of animals, the time needed for complete cure was very much longer than that in the control animals. 75% of the control animals showed a complete cure from the ulcer within 4 weeks, but 43% of the treated animals remained without complete cure for over 10 weeks after the operation.Microscopically, these ulcers also revealed quite a resemblance to those of human gastric ulcers. The findings of excavation, double line ofdemarcation, three or four ulcers layers (of necrotic tissue, of fibrinoid degeneration, of granulation tissue and of cicatrization), and round cell infiltration like lymph follicle and various vascular changes, which are all seen in typical chronic ulcer of human beings, could be observed in these experimental ulcers.It was very interesting that adenomatous prolifilation of atypical glandular cells of the mucosal layer and of abnormal cells, which were quite similar to the epithelial cells of the bile duct, could be found.
    Using histological preparats, some measurements were made of the size and several changes of the ulcer, length of defect in the mucosal layer and of the surface of the ulcer, degree of the regenerated mucosa, width of defect of the muscularis mucosa and muscle coat, and thickness of the basal and marginal portion of the ulcer. Analysis of the healing process of the ulcer was made with this data obtained from the measurements and the differences of the data between the treated and control groups were also studied. From these studies, it was clearly proved that the C-C group showed a longer healing process than that of the control group. From this data of the measurements, new ulcer indices were devised for representing the healing processof the ulcer objec-tively. Using the new indices, it was definitely proved that the C-C group had a longer healing process compared with that of the control group.
    From the results of these experiments, it is clearly shown that the Clamping-Cortisone method is very useful for studing the many problems of the gastriculcer and for assaying the therapeutic effects of many drugs used for treating human gastric ulcers.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1965 Volume 62 Issue 12 Pages 1551-1558
    Published: 1965
    Released: June 17, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1965 Volume 62 Issue 12 Pages 1559-1580
    Published: 1965
    Released: June 17, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1965 Volume 62 Issue 12 Pages 1581-1599
    Published: 1965
    Released: June 17, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1965 Volume 62 Issue 12 Pages 1601-1632
    Published: 1965
    Released: June 17, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Part I on Hydrolytic Enzymes
    Takao KAWASHIMA, Shigeru TAKEMOTO, Hiroshi YOSHIDA, Nobuto SHIMATANI, ...
    1965 Volume 62 Issue 12 Pages 1633-1639_2
    Published: 1965
    Released: June 17, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A histochemical study was carried out in order to clarify the localization in gastric mucosa about five hydrolytic enzymes, which were alkalinephosphatase, acidphosohatase, β-esterase, β-glucuronidase and leucine aminopeptidase.
    The materials were stomach specimens, which were surgically removed during these four years. Tatal number of the specimen was over fifty.
    The specimens were sliced at 20 micra in -20°C cryostat, then the specimens were stained by means of azo-coupling methods, described by Pearse, Seligman et al. and Nachlas et al.
    Al P activity was strong in capillary wall and tunica intima of vessels and was negative at all in the elements of normal gastric mucosa and its inflammatory areas except for old ulcer granulation and intestinal metaplasia.
    Ac P activity was mainly noticed in zymogenic cells, parietal cells, neck cells in normal fundocorpus gland and weak in pyloric gland. Most of wander cells were weakly reactive, but metaplastic changes and proliferating histiocytes were moderately stained.
    β-Est reaction was moderate or strong in deeper fundocorpus gland cells and histiocytes, and faint to moderate in pyloric gland cells.
    β-G1 activity in stomach was similar to malic dehydrogenase activity. Superficial epithelium, parietal cells and pyloric gland cells were almost moderately active.
    On the demonstration of Amp, no pigment deposition was found in normal stomach.
    Generally reaction of five enzymes had a tendency to decrease in atrophic area and to increase in hypertrophic, in necrotic and in degenerative area. The activity of intestinal metaplasia was resembled that in villi of the duodenum.
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  • Part II on Dehydrogenases
    Takao KAWASHIMA, Shigeru TAKEMOTO, Hiroshi YOSHIDA, Nobuto SHIMATANI, ...
    1965 Volume 62 Issue 12 Pages 1641-1646_2
    Published: 1965
    Released: June 17, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hydrolytic enzymes on human stomach had been described histochemically in part I.
    Therefore a histochemical study on dehydrogenases was performed in the present paper, in which succinic, lactic, malic, α-glycerophosphate, glutamic, β-hydroxybutyric, glucose-6-phosphate and isocitric dehydrogenases were examined.
    Materials were obtained by the same methods in part I.
    Specimens were cut at 20 micra in -20°C cryostat, then the sections were stained by the methods described by Pearse with nitro-BT as the electron acceptor.
    For the stainings of SDH and NAD linked dehydrogenases, superficial epithelium of pyloricgland area was not the same of fundcorpus gland area enzymatically, and the former was stronger reactive in basal side than in surface side of pyloric area. Thestaining reaction was heavy in parietal cells, but weak or moderate in neck cells, zymagemic cells and pyloric gland cells.
    Strong staining intensity of NADPlinked dehydrogenases was noticed in gastric superficial epithelium, while weakly or hardly stained in gland cells. These eight dehydrogenase activities were kept or slightly increased in earlier stage of necrosis and degeneration and aparrently decreased in necrotic or degenerative region.
    Atrophic mucosa showed decreased reaction and hyperplastic or hypertrophic regions showed a tendency to increased the activty. Staining reaction in intestinal metaplasia. was more intense than in normal mucosa and similar to that in duodenal villi.
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  • Masao Nakagawa
    1965 Volume 62 Issue 12 Pages 1647-1659_2
    Published: 1965
    Released: June 17, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is considered that the rheumatoid factor tests are not always specific to rheumatoid arthritis, but often positive in other autoimmune diseases and liver diseases.
    The chronicity of liver diseases has been interested recently. And antoimmune mechanism is thought as of its genesis.
    In this paper, the frequency of positive rheumatoid factor tests in liver deseases and. the comparison of clinical pictures between positive and negative cases of these tests were reported.
    As the rheumatoid factor tests, Latex Fixation Test (LFT), FII Agglutinatingreaction (F II A), and Waaler-Rose reaction (Heller-Svartz's method: SSA) were performed. The results were as follows.
    (1) In the total cases of liver disease, the positive LFT was 42.3%, F II A: 29.6%, and SSA: 17.3%.
    These positive results seemed significantly higher than others except collagen diseases.
    (2) In liver diseases, the positive appearence rates were higher in chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis than in acute hepatitis.
    (3) In acute hepatitis, some cases became positive in LFT at the recombalescent stadium temporarily, but others stayed negative.
    (4) In chronic hepatitis, many cases with positive LFT were more elevated in the levels of GOT, GPT, AL-P, ZTT and γ-globulin than LFT negative, and most of LFT positive cases showed histologically cell infiltration, necrosis of liver cells and fibrosis by liver biopsy. In these cases LFT became positive temporarily or continuously and the latter cases, were aggravated occasionally, of which prognosis were worse as compared with negative or temporary positive cases.
    (5) In liver cirrhosis, many positive cases of LFT were elevated in the levels of γ-Globulin, TTT and ZTT markedly in contrast to negative ones. Predominant cell infiltration, liver cell necrosis, and fibrosis were revealed histologically by liver biopsy in the former cases.
    The appearance of LFT in liver cirrhosis were generally continuous and the titers of the testwere paralleled to its clinical course. The prognosis of the continuous positivecases were worse compare with negative or temporary positive cases and all the fatal cases were included in the former group.
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  • Significance of the urinary excretion in acute hepatitis and the rabbit with damaged liver
    Junichi Yamamoto
    1965 Volume 62 Issue 12 Pages 1661-1681
    Published: 1965
    Released: June 17, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A precursor of purine, 4-amino-5-imidazolecarboxamide was determined in the urineof norma subjects, patients with acute hepatitis and of rabbits with the CCl4 damaged liver to study the metabolic changes of purine in liver disease.
    The excretion of AICA into the urine has been proved of constancy which isprobably an endogenous nature, the existence of a collateral pathway of AICA metabolism observed in animal being possibly true in man as well.
    Daily urinary output of 4-amino-5-imidazolecarboxamide was 1.2±0.5mg in patints with acute hepatitis being less than 1.5±0.6mg in normal subjects, although the statistical difference was not so great.(0.1<P {|t|=1.47}<0.2) A significant difference noticed, however, in the urinary output was at the first day aftera single oral administration of 500mg AICA to the patients with acute hepatitis and normal subjects showing the values of 41.5±13.4mg and 58.2±12.0mg respectively.
    The excretion of uric acid in the urine following the admininistration of AICA remianed unchanged in normal and hepatitis.
    The level of AICA of normal rabbit was 0.17±0.06mg per day, while it was decreased to 0.10±0.04 in the rabbits with CCl4 damaged liver. Obvious difference was found.(P {|t|≥5.6}<<0.001)
    The urinary level of AICA of normal rabbit was correlated to the volume of urine, the correlation index being 0.85, but theindex was broken when the decrease in the urinary volume in the rabbit of damaged liver. A single injection of 20mg AKA to rabbit revealed a difference in urinary AICA between rabbit and damaged liver showing 5.2±0.48 and 4.05±1.43mg respectively.
    AICA in bile of normal rabbit determined with time intervals following a single-intravenous injection of 20mg AICA was estimated to be 1% of AICA given.
    Liver function tests such as BSP, aldolase activity or fructose tolerance test of the rabbits with CCl4 damaged liver showed noticeable improvement when treated with successive injection of 20mg AICA for 7 days.
    In conclusion, the investigation of AICA from the aspect of its excretory patterns in the cases of hepatitis in man suggested the activation of the purine metabolism relating to the reparation of the damage of the liver and the fact was furtherconfirmed by the animal experiments.
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