In the preceding paper, tyramine production of various intestinal bacteria was reported. In this report, experimental observations on some supplementary conditions were carried out when large dose of the tyramine producing bacteria (a kind of Klebsiella) was given to rats by mouth. When constant intestinal bacteria were replaced with tyramine producing bacteria at digestive canal, as the supplementary condition, tyrosine and tyramine were given in large dose by mouth to rats and further more CCl4 liver intoxication was exerted to these animals. In each condition, tyrosine, tyramine and these decomposition products in urine were examined. The demonstration of decomposition products in urine were chiefly applied by use of various chromatographical techniques. In the case that chief constant intestinal flora were tyramine producing strains and tyrosine and tyramine were given in large dose and CCl4 liver intoxication was exerted to these animal, the percentage of positiveness of Millon reaction of urine was higher in the test animals than in the various control animals. As Millon positive substances, tyrosine, tyramine, tyrosol, and some acid (p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid and phydroxyphenylacetic acid) were proved. Many strains (isolated from feces of patients) having tyrosine decarboxylase, produced not only tyramine from tyrosine but also phenylethylamine from phenylalanine and dopamine from dopa. Namely, it was demonstrated that many bacteria which produced tyramine from tyrosine would compose also phenylethylamine and dopamine. These finding indicate that phenylethylamine and dopamine are surely produced in intestinal canal when tyramine producing bacteria are growing in it. Some intestinal bacteria having tyrosine decarboxylase also produced cadaverine from lysine, putrescine from arginine, histamine from histidine, and γ-amino butyrate from glutamate.
The present investigation was undertaken to clarify the mechanism of obstructive jaundice, caused experimentally by ligation of the bile duct of dogs, from physiological and morphological viewpoints. The experiment was excuted as follows; (1) The relationship of biliary pressure after ligation and serum components (bile pigment, alkaline phosphatase, GOT and GPT) was investigated. These changes by ligation were measured continuously for 120 hours. (2) By intrabiliary infusion of bile pigment, Evans blue and 198Au under a certain added pressure, the pathway of these substances from bile to hepatic venous blood was traced. Concentration and amount of bile pigment and Evans blue in the thoracic duct lymph and the hepatic venous blood were measured. Using autoradiographical method, the intrahepatic course of the isotope was studied. (3) Hepatic cell function on uptake, conjugaiton and excretion in obstructive jaundice was investigated by intravenous administration of 198Au, 131I-RB and 3H-bilirubin, and infusion of BSP. Distribution of the isotopic substances was analysed by counting radioactivity and microautoradiography. During infusion, serum and biliary BSP concentration was measured. The results are summarized as follows; (1) In obstructive jaundice, hepatic cell is able to excute uptake, conjugation and even excretion into bile canaliculi in the early stage after ligation. Later, when excretion was completely hindered, uptake and conjugation were still carried on with comparatively less activity. (2) Transfer of bile pigment, Evans blue and 198Au through hepatic cell from bile to blood stream was observed. These observations indicate that the hepatic cell shows the function of "bi-directional transfer", and reversed transfer of conjugated bilirubin from hepatic cell to blood is important in developing of obstructive jaundice.
The changes of the35S uptake of the gastric wall and of the 35S excretion into the gastric juice were studied by using the experimental ulcer which was induced by clamping and clamping-cortisone methods in rats. Furthermore, the effects of different steroidal hormones and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the 35S uptake of the gastric wall with ulcer were also studied. The results of these studies are summarized as follows: 1) The 35S uptake of the gastric wall and the 35S excretion rate into the gastric juice increased remarkably, in the stomach with ulcer induced by the clamping method (C ulcer) compared with that of the normal stomach. The 35S uptake of the ulcerated portion was especially high. 2) The 35S uptake of the gastric wall increased as progress of ulcer continued and reached a maximum at the 10th ulcer day and thereafter decreased gradually in the C ulcer. These changes had a lineal relationship with an aggravating and healing condition of the ulcer. 3) In the group in which the experimental ulcer was induced by the clamping-cortisone method (C-C ulcer), the 35S uptake of the gastric wall was inhibited remarkably at the 10th ulcer day. Thereafter it increased gradually as progress of the ulcer continued and reached a maximum at the 35th ulcer day. It was obvious that the 35S uptake of the gastric wall in this group did not increase so rapidly compared with that in the ulcer. A lineal relationship was observed between the degree of the 35S uptake of the gastric wall and the rate of healing which was measured by histological examination. 4) At the 7th ulcer day, the inhibiting degree of the 35S uptake of the gastric wall was compared in some groups treated with diff erent kinds of glucocorticoid preparations. In two groups treated with cortisone acetate and prednisolone acetate, a clear dose-response curve was observed. However, in the groups treated with phosphate compounds, such a clear dose-response was not found. The group treated orally with prednisolone powder showed the same effect as the group treated intramuscularly. 5) The 35S uptake of the gastric wall was inhibited in both groups treated with acetyl-salicylic acid and bucolom, but it was not inhibited in either group treated with indomethacin and phenylbutazone.
In the recent years many studies have been done about bile flow at the distal portion of the common duct. And those studies give us many informations about understanding the disease itself and are important for a successful operation on the biliary tract. We have studied the subjects for five years by our method. By it's results we make a decision, whether additional procedure on it after cholecystectomy is neccesary or not. Principle of our manometry, different from Caroli's or Mallet-Guy's, is that the varing irrigation pressure changes flow volume of the distal portion. This relationship between them is a certain straight line on the graphic registration. This inclination of the line is calculated as a resistant value. Irrigation pressure at the zero point of the flow volume, we call it"P"value. The relatinship between these two values is investigated and finally accepted the following situations about the choledochoduodenal junction. The subjects with both high values are classified as the functional hypercondition. The subjects with both low values are classified as the organic hypotonic condition. The subjects with high resistant value and low"P"value are classified as the organic stricture. The analysis was made for 200 subjects of benign biliary tract disease and normal ranges are determined as below 20 for the resistant value and as 50 to 150mm H2O for "P" value. The surgical approach to the biliary tract, especially to the distal portion of the common duct, is determined for the subjects with exceeding these normal ranges, referring the findings of the operative cholangiography. These results have been satisfactory up to the present time.