212 polypoid of 92 cases of gastric polypoid lesion are studied and the following results are obtained. 1) For the generation of polyp with stem, first the local prolifiration of the mucosa as the center, and roughness of the submucosa of this region are neccesary. Then the strong peristalsis push up the musclaris mucosa. 2) The musclaris mucosa is classified into following four types; horizontal type, box type, tent type, hair pin type. 3) Muscle fibre of the mucosa are grouped into two types; susuki (pampas grass) type and fountain type. 4) The main type of polyp with wide base are horizontal type box type and susuki type. 5) When the polyp become to have the stem, tent type, hair pin type and fountain type are seen more commonly. 6) If the cancer remains in mucosal layer, the elevated early gastric cancer shows the same tendency like polyp. 7) When the cancer invates the submucosa, mucosa are pushed up. This mechanism is called as "Push Up" force. This factor is thought to be the main factor for the elevation of mucosa in the case of submucosal type of the early gastric cancer.
The presence of hypergammaglobulinemia and serlogical abnormalities in sera from patients with liver diseases has been demonstrated but clinical values for diagnosing liver diseases are yet unclear. In an attempt to elucidate these subject, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) was determined in 117 patients with liver diseases by the single radial immunodiffusion method of Mancimi et al. The Ig levels were compare with the stage of diseases, liver function test and rheumatoid factor (Rf) titer. Serum IgM levels elevated in acute hepatitis, and IgG and IgA levels were normal or only slightly increased. There were wide variations among the sera from patients with chronic liver diseases. The mean levels of each of the three Ig classes in active forms of chronic hepatitis was higher than those of inactive forms. A particular increase of IgM or a decrease of IgA were sometimes observed in cases of liver cirrhosis. Rf was found in 11.4% of cases with acute hepatitis, in 43.1% of chronic hepatitis and in 45.1% of liver cirrhosis. Half of these patients had Rf titers of 1: 160 or greater. Rf titer in active forms of chronic liver diseases was higher than those of inactive forms. No quantitative relationships were found between any of the Ig levels and Rf titer. A correlation between Rf titer and PTT was found, but no correlations were found between Rf titer and GPT or CCFT. These results indicate that the measurement of Ig and Rf have clinical values for diagnosis of liver diseases.
Following conclusions were deduced from our study on the surgical specimens of the stomach with regard to the histological changes of the gastric wall and the paragastric lymphonodes. (1) In the chronic gastritis dymanic changes are observed, starting from hyperplastic gastritis, proceeding to atrophying gastritis and ending in the atrophic gastritis. (2) Similar dynamic changes from the hyperplastic, to the atrophying, and finally to the atophic changes are also seen in the paragastric lymphonodes in parallel to those changes in the gastric wall. (3) When the gastric wall is accompanied with ulceration, the paragastric lymphonodes also show some modifications. (4) An interesting finding from the standpoint of prolonged local immunological reaction is our observation of lymphadenitis with hematoxylin body-like granules and onion-skin like vascular changes and of proliferation of basophilic large mononuclear cells (blastoid cells) around the follicle of the lymphonodes.
Although the Jacquemet method has been used for hypotonic duodenography, it has been shown that mucosal reflexes can be to tally arrested by the use of anticholinergics alone. The necessity of using mucosal anaesthetics while performing hypotonic duodenography was studied by a balloon kymographic method. Using the balloon kymographic method, when duodenal movements were recorded at the second portion of the duodenum and barium was introduced into the third portion of the duodenum, duodenal movements were increased. In contrast, no such increase was observed when anticholinergics at normal dosis was injected intramusculary prior to barium introduction. The results were similar regardless of using mucosal anaesthetics. Therefor, the use of mucosal anaesthetics is unnecessary. The author find that hypotonic duodenography without mucosal anaesthetics visualises duodenal patterns and detailed anatomical pictures. In the hypotonic duodenography, the walls, circular folds and frenulum of the duodenum were demonstrated in anatomical detail. The frenulum and papilla major were usually visualised between the 7th and 8th circular folds in the postero-medial wall of the duodenum.