It is generally thought that diarrhea may have an adverse effect on absorption, or at least it would not accelerate absorption. No definitive studies have been made to prove the point, however. In this study, the effects of MgSO4, Na2SO4, D-sorbitol, castor oil, and several others were assessed on the absorption of 57Co-B12, 131I-human albumin, 131I-triolein and 59FeCl3 in rats. Absorption was measured from recovery of radioactivity in feces and organs, and/or by whole body counting. It was found that absorption of B12 was increased by MgSO4 and sorbitol, whether the dose of B12 was physiological or supraphysiological, and the effect became apparent late after oral administration. The increase was more marked with a large dose of B12. Castor oil inhibited absorption of small doses of B12, but increased absorption of large doses. The effects of MgSO4 on the speed of B12 transit in the digestive tract were studied and it was disclosed that MgSO4 delayed the descent of gastric content into the bowel, had little effect on the speed of intestinal transit, and that the cecal content which had expanded under the influence of the cathartic regurgitated into the ileum. Increase of B12 absorption is caused most likely by the delayed descent of the nutrient from the stomach and its regurgitation into the ileum from the cecum. The same phenomena may occur in man under the influence of cathartics, It seems that bulk cathartics have little effect on the absorptive capacity of the small intestinal mucosa.
A. On the Effect of Autonomic Nervous System to Liver Regeneration 2/3 partial hepatectomy in rat was performed by the method of Higgins & Anderson. At the same time, bilateral N. vagus and N. splanchnicus major were transected just under the diaphragma. As the indicator of the liver regeneration, the regeneration ratio of Canzanelli and P32 incorporation to DNA were studied in the course of the time. Experimental results were as follows. (1) Decrease of regeneration ratio, when N. vagus was transected, was statistically significant, at the 7th day after partial hepatectomy. Transection of N. splanchnicus major was no effect upon the regeneration ratio. (2) Transection of N. vagus and of N. splanchnicus major, both had no effects upon P32 incorporation to DNA after partial hepatectomy. Therefore, the transaction of N. vagus is supposed to influence, not to the cell division itself but to the hypertrophy of individual cell after cell division. B. On the Effect of Portal Blood Supply to Liver Regeneration 2/3 partial hepatectomy was performed by the method of Higgins & Anderson. 1/3 partial hepatectomy was performed by the resection of left lateral lobe. At the same time, bilateral N. vagus and N. splanchnicus major were transected just under the diaphragma. Deprivation of portal blood supply was performed by the ligation of the branch of portal vein to right lateral lobe. As indicators of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, weight changes of each lobes, regeneration ratio of Canzanelli, mitosis index, P32 incorporation to DNA, H3-thymidine autoradiography were studied. Experimental results were as follows. (1) When the ligation of the branch of the portal vein was performed, the ligated lobe markedly decreased its weight and cell division was not found in this lobe. On the other hand, in the unligated lobes, the cell division was found same degree as 1/3 partial hepatectomy. (2) When 1/3 partial hepatectomy was performed at the same time as the ligation of the branch of the portal vein, the ligated lobe markedly decreased its weight and cell division was not found in this lobe. In the unligated lobe, the cell division was found same degree as 2/3 partial hepatectomy. (3) When 2/3 partial hepatectomy was performed at the same time as the ligation of the branch of the portal vein, the ligated lobe maintained its initial weight and showed the cell division same degree as 2/3 partial hepatectomy. And the course of this cell division had the tendency to delay. On the other hand, in the unligated lobe, more marked cell division than 2/3 partial hepatectomy only, occured. (4) The cell division when 2/3 partial hepatectomy was performed, was more marked than the cell division when 1/3 partial hepatectomy was performed. As the result of this study on the effect of the deprivation of portal blood supply to liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, the existence of the humoral factor was supposed which stimulate the cell division. This humoral factor was thought to act from the unligated lobe to ligated lobe and at the same time, to act from the ligated lobe to unligated lobe.
Fine structures of epithelial surface of human stomach removed by surgical operation, were subjected to the scanning electron microscopical observation. The specimens were taken from the scar of a gastric linear ulcer and its surrounding epithelial surface of the gastrectomized materials of a 43 year old man. The specimens were immediately washed with Dimethylpolysiloxane solution, fixed with 2.5% buffered glutaraldehyde and dehydrated with acetone. After coating with gold about 100Å thick, they were subjected to the observation and were photographed by scanning electron microscope, JSM-U3. The gastric surface was uneven, where two types of foveola were observed. Ring-like one was named foveolar type and ladder-like one was named to sulciolar type. In the scar of gastric linear ulcer covered by regenerated epithelial tissues the sulciolar typed of foveola was found on the oral part and the foveolar type was located on the anal part. We were able to observe the surface of the gastric surface of each epithelial cells by ×3000 of the magnification. Gastric epithelial cells were covered with mucous and after the removal of the mucous the surface of epithelial cells was seen with their projections and mucous threads. Microvilli-like structures were also observed, but they are not enough clear. From these studies, we feel the importance to develope further the washing method of the gastric mucous in order to get a more accurate gastroscopic diagnosis.
A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in November, 1970, because of hypercholesterolemia developed during treatment with 4, 4'-diethylaminoethoxy hexoestrol dihydrochloride. The results of general physical examination were negative except for slight enlargement of the liver. Laboratory data disclosed vacuolated leucocytes in peripheral blood, morphologically distinct histiocytes packed with blue-staining granules in bone marrow aspirates, hyperlipidemia and accumulation of a laminated myelinoid substance and of lysobisphosphatidic acid in the liver and other organs. These are characteristic of the so-called drug-induced lipidosis reported by Adachi et al. in 1971. There was no increase of liver triglycerides. The concentrations of serum triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol showed about 3-, 2- and 2-fold increases, respectively, above the normal value. The level of serum non-esterified fatty acids was normal throughout the clinical course. The patient showed normal glucose tolerance and insulin response to glucose. The triglyceride level was not further increased by a high carbohydrate diet. Post-heparin lipolytic activity was found decreased to about one third of the normal value. These results suggest that the elevated serum triglyceride level in the present case is probably caused by the low post-heparin lipolytic activity.