In the previous reports, many studies on tyramine production by intestinal bacteria have reported. In this study, tyramine production from tyrosine was examined for anaerobic bacteria and eumycetes isolated from faeces of men and rats. Furthermore, tyramine production under some conditions of digestive canal (effect of starvation and antibiotics etc, ) was examined. Tyrosine consumption was also examined for some aerobic bacteria. Many strains of clostridium, veillonella, peptostreptococcus and some strains of bifidus produced tyramine from tyrosine. Although bacteriodes in anaerobic condition was recognized as chief constant intestinal bacteria in normal subjects, tyramine production of these strains was not remarkable. Some strains of eumycetes (Penicillium, Aspergillus) also produced tyramine from tyrosine. Effect of Kanamycin and Neomycin against tyrosine decarboxylase (aceton powder) was investigated. Tyrosine decarboxylase was slightly inhibited by these antibiotics. Kanamycin and Neomycin has given for one month by mouth to rats, and after this research, amount of St. faecalis isolated from faeces of these experimental animals decreased and tyrosine decarboxylase activity in some strains of these microorganisms also reduced. Effect of tyramine production by fasting was examined for St. faecalis isolated from faeces of rats. Amount of intestinal bacteria decreased by abstinence from food, but tyramine production of each strain was unchanged. Tyrosine decomposition was examind for some aerobic bacteria. Tyrosine consumption in culture filtrate was not always in parallel with tyrosine decarboxylase activity. It was demonstrated that tyramine production in digestive canal was effected by not only types, characters, and amount of chief constant intestinal microorganisms but also various conditions of digestive canal.
The intestinal absorption and postabsorptive tissue utilization of medium chain triglyceride was studied in comparison with those of long chain triglyceride using l-14C-labeled MCT and LCT as well as similarly labeled Na-octanoate and Na-oleate in rats. Evolution of 14CO2 was measured employing closed CO2 trapping system, as a measure of absorption and/or utlization. For the study on the utilization of these lipids in metabolic derangement, acute and chronic, ethanol induced liver damages were produced in rats, and similar experiments were carried out. For the production of chronic ethanol liver, an experimental diet containing ethanol and solidified with agar, was used with success. The following are the results: 1) Absorption and utilization as measured from 14CO2 evolution are much faster for MCT compared with LCT, and orally fed MCT is almost completely utilized within 7 hours. 2) Absorption of orally administered MCT is not much dependent upon the presence of bile in the intestine, and MCT directly placed in the cecum is absorbed if bile acids and lipase were available. 3) Absorption and utilization of both MCT and LCT are impaired markedly in acute liver damage induced by ethanol. Since intestinal transit of the oral dose of lipid was impaired in acute ethanol intoxication, intravenous administration of emulsified lipid suspensions was done for utilization studies. In chronic ethanol intoxication, absorption and utilization of MCT are little affected in comparison with LCT which is poorly utilized under the same conditions.
To the internist and the radiologist the duodenum and pancreaticoduodenal region are one of the most important areas of the G-I tract. In recent years, Hypotonic duodenography techiniques have been utilized in an effort to improve the accuracy and early radiological diagnosis of these lesions. From the radiological diagnostic point of view, the roentgenographic findings should correspond with the anatomic-pathologic findings. This study is a part of the radiologic investigations of the duodenum. The anatomy of the duodenum, including the pancreaticoduodenal region, was studied in 97 cadavers of both sexs. 1) The circular folds, beginning at the first portion of the duodenum, are one of the roentgeno-anatomical units. 2) The papilla major were usually found between the 7th and the 8th circular folds of the deodenum. 3) The papilla minor were found in 75.0% of the specimens examined, and these were found usually on the 4th or 5th circular folds of kerkring in 51.6%. 4) The anatomical relationship of the pancreas to the wall of the duodenum was examined. 5) The shape of the major papilla was most frequently found to be round elevation. (64.9%) The distance between the cranial and caudal circular folds of papilla major was more longer than that of other circular folds. The papilla major projects into the duodenum at the summit of a Frenulum which found to be present more frequently (77.9%) 6) The types of entrance of the common duct and pancreatic duct in the region of the papilla major were classified in three types. (From Becker: Fortschr. Roentgenstr. 95, 796, 1961) The Y-shaped type was most frequently found in 75.2%.
In the previous reports, as the pathogenesis of Mann-Williamson's ulcer investigated from the standpoint of the presence of ulcer inhibiting substance, it was proved that ulcer inhibiting substance was contained in the extract of the pancreas and there was a close relation between ulcer inhibiting substance and lipase and pancreatic lipide. The present experiment was performed to study the influence of Secretin upon M-W's ulcer to investigate the correlation between ulcer inhibiting substance and gastrointestinal hormone. The results were as follows: 1) The development of ulcer was inhibited in two out of three ulcer provoking dogs administered intramuscularly daily 50 Units of Secretin. 2) The development of ulcer was inhibited in four out of five ulcer provoking dogs administered intramuscularly daily 100 Units of Secretin. 3) There was no close relation between the development of ulcer and the gastric acidity. 4) There was no definite relation between the development of ulcer and the histologic findings of the liver and pancreas. 5) It is assumed that Secretin has an ulcer inhibiting action upon M-W's ulcer provoking dogs which inhibits the gastric secretion as an antagonistic action upon Gastrin, while Secretin has an other ulcer inhibiting action which is extremely resembled to the ulcer inhibiting substance reported by us.