This study is mainly concerned with whether or not there is a relationship between the caffeine and the gastrin (tetragastrin) method and whether the gastric acidity evoked by the latter method is histologically well related to the status of parietal cells. 1) The gastric secretion by 4r/kg tetragastrin is significantly higher (P<0.001) than that by the caffeine method, both in acidity and peptic activity. 2) Fundamentally there appears to be a similarity between these two methods (r=0.61 P<0.001), however the most remarkable difference is that almost all of the "achylia gastrica" group by caffeine method are raised to the "normoacidity group" by the gastrin method. 3) Gastrin is quick in acid stimulation and the time neccessary for clinical examination may be possibly shortened, because there is a good correlation (r=0.94) between the acidity at 30 or 45 minute collection period and the maximum acidity. 4) Maximal dose for acid and pepsin secretion is around 4rg/kg, judged from the dose response curve and the degree of acidity induced by that dose is quantitatively related to the number of parietal cells. 5) Concerning the differential diagnosis of gastric diseases by acidity, the gastrin method resembles that of caffeine, that is, duodenal ulcer, erosive gastritis and advanced cancer are significantly differentiated, but the clinical importance of the gastrin method should be centered on the functional diagnostic aspect that enables us to guess the histological background of stomach, though our endoscopic examination sometimes fails to do so.
The purpose of this studies were to investigate the human chronic gastritis by 3H-thymidine autoradiography. As it was impossible to examine throughout gastric mucous membrane by ordinary in vitro incubation, the new method was attempted. This new attempt was made to incubate the tissue under a proper physical pressure during in vitro perfusion in 3H-thymidine. An incubation apparatus was devised with two parts, that is, a vessel to hold incubation fluid and pressure device. Two cylinders were used for an incubation vessel with their bottoms put together. Gastric mucous membrane was plased between the bottoms; the incubation fluid (Eagle's medium 1.8cc, calf serum 0.2cc and 3H-thymidine 20μc) was poured into one cylinder. 10-20cmHg positive pressure was given to where the incubation fluid was and 10-20cmHg negative pressure to the other part. Using this method, a full examination throughout gastric mucous membrane was possible. 1) In normal gastric mucosa, 3H-thymidine labeled cells were located only in the neck region of gastric gland and presented a dotted line. 2) In the gastric mucosa with superficial gastritis, many labeled cells were located in the neck region and fairly even in the foveola. 3) In the atrophic-hyperplastic gastritis, the labeled cells were located mainly in the basal area with hyperplastic foveola. 4) In the atrophic gastritis, the labeled cells were found in various area, and mainly in the basal area of foveola when the atrophy was severe. 5) In the intestinalized gastric mucosa, the labeled cells were found only in the basal area of epithelium; this resembled the ordinary intestinal epithelium.
In this paper, the results of electron microscopic studies on regenerating epitherial cells in the experimental gastric ulcer induced by clamping and clamping-cortisone methods in rats are presented. The results of these studies were summerized as follows. 1) Many regenerating immature mucosal cells developed in the cell population which constitutes epithelial ingrowth of the marginal zone in the C ulcer at the first ulcer week. These immature cells seemed to be undifferentiated cells. From the cytoplasm of these cells many interdigitating processes projected across the intercellular fluid and the cytoplasm was dark. Being adjacent to the undifferentiated dark cells, one group of cells which had quite a resemblance to the undifferentiated cells, but contained mucous granules, were observed. These cells seemed to be the immature surface mucous cells which were differentiated from the undifferentiated cells. In the surface of the base of the ulcer, the degenerated undifferentiated cells with large lysosome-like vacuoles were observed. 2) At the second ulcer week, differentiation of these undifferentiated cells progressed. Almost all of the gland forming cells were the immature mucous neck cells. The lateral plasmalemma of these cells showed digitation. On the surface of the glandular lumen, a few microvilli were observed and in the apical cytoplasm a few immature secretory granules were seen. 3) At the 3rd week, differentiation of the immature mucous neck cells progressed further and almost all of the cells forming the gland changed from immature cells to mature mucous neck cells. These cells had no interdigitating processes and lateral cytoplasmic membranes were straight. The apical cytoplasm was filled with secretory granules, and well developed endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus were seen. In some parts of the gland, the cells which seemed to be in a transitional stage between mucous neck cells and chief cells were observed. In these cells, two types of granules, i.e. mucous granules and zymogenic granules in the apical area of the cytoplasm were found and endoplasmic reticulum which gathered in the basal region was seen. The Golgi apparatus was well developed. Neck parietal cells were intersparsed among these cells. 4) In the C-C ulcer, electron microscopic findings of the regenerating mucosal cells did not show any essential difference to that of the C ulcer. However, a delay of 2 weeks in differentiation and development of the mucosal cells was observed.
It has been acknowledged that variations in results of hepatic flowmetry are quite common according to methods employed. In order to clarify characteristics of the variations it was attempted to compare results of electromagnetic flowmetry to the clearance methods with Au198 colloid and IGG, using dogs with partial hepatectomies (HX), hepatic arterial ligation (HAL), portal vein constriction (PVC), and end to side portacaval anastomosis (PCA). Before and one hour after the operations measurement of hepatic blood flow (HBF) was performed with trapezoidal electromagnetic flowmeter. Hepatic clearance of Au198 colloid and ICG was evaluated in terms of K min-1 (peripheral disappearance rate) and ER (extraction ratio). Changes of K both of the indicator in each group were almost proportional to that of HBF measured with the flowmeter. This supports the view hitherto held that K is a reliable quantitative index of HBF. In contrast, changes of ER were characteristically different in each group; i.e., increase of ER was observed in 40 per cent HX, PVC, and PCA, and was accompanied with a certain increase of hepatic arterial flow (HAF), however, ER decreased in 70 per cent HX and HAL both accompanying consistent reduction of HAF. These findings indicate that ER is a qualitative index of compensatory function of the liver mainly from hepatic arterial route. It was stated also that K/ER which had been used to caliculate hepatic blood flow in clearance studies was not always proportional to changes of HBF, and therefore this is not suited to represent changes of HBF.