Comparative histologic examination and measurement of amylase values in pancreasand parotid gland with the determination of serum amylase values were made on seventyfive rats with repairing course of experimentally produced acute pancreatitis. The results were as follows: The histologic findings and amylase values of parotid gland changed parallel to the severity of pancreatic changes either in the repairing course of severe pancreatitis or mild pancreatitis. The histologic changes and amylase values of pancreas and parotid gland showed a little more delayed restoration to normalcy in sever pancreatitis than in mild pancreatitis. No significant interrelation between the histologic changes in repairing course ofacute pancreatitis and serum amylase values could be recognized. The authors recommended to utilize the shift of amylase values in parotid saliva as a means for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis or pancreatic diseases.
Comparative histologic examination and measurement of amylase values in pancreasand parotid gland with the determination of serum amylase values were made respectively in twenty-two rats with experimentally produced perforative peritonitis and intestinal obstruction. The results are summarized as follows. Perforative peritonitis and intestinal obstruction themselves could not exert a direct influence upon parotid gland, but only pancreatic changes caused in these conditions induced the changes of parotid gland. The pathologic changes of pancreas were noticed either on the pathologic condition of parotid gland or on it's normal condition. Serum amylase values had no significant interrelation to the pancreatic lesions. The pathologic changes of pancreas were noticed either on the pathologic condition of parotid gland or on it's normal condition. Serum amylase values had no significant interrelation to the pancreatic lesions.
The curative effects of twelve kinds of drugs which have been used clinically, were tested by using the Clamping-Cortisone ulcer. The results of the studies are summarized as follows. 1) The curative effects of antacids, i.e. sodium bicarbonate (NB) and Alumigel, were 1.5 times greater compared with the natural healing processes of the non treated control ulcer. A characteristic tissue contraction in the group treated with NB was found. 2) The curative effects of the mixed remedies which contained Bentyl, propantheline, glycirrhizin and some antacids, were more remarkable than that of the antacids. This means that the curative effect is raised by mixing the several kinds of the drugs which have different curative action. 3) In the group treated with drugs which showed excellent healing effects, the lineal relationships between the mucosal regeneration and development of the connective tissues was seen. It was found that there are two kinds of drugs which have a contrasting action on the mucosa and the connective tissues. For instance, 4cl-TA promoted chiefly development of the collagen fiber, and Solcoseryl accelerated regeneration of the mucosa. 4) The single use of the antisecretory drugs such as Proglomid and Sulpilid, did not show any distinct curative effect on the ulcer. 5) It is confirmed that the Clamping-Cortisone ulcer is very useful for the bioassay of the curative effect of drugs on the gastric ulcer.
The effects of alcoholic drinks on the human gastric mucosa were investigated using gastroscope (FGS-CL, BL. Machida). The results were summarized as follows. 1) Multiple ulcers in the antrum, erosions or redness of various extent were observed in 6 patients who had complained epigastric pain or hematemesis after taking alcohol in excess. It may suggest that alcoholic beverage play important factor in producing such gastric changes. 2) The differences of gastroscopic and histological appearances between before and after alcohol intake were analysed in 10 cases. The changes of gastroscopic feature induced by alcohol were localized or wide spread redness and some degree of opaque mucus on the mucosal surface. Many histological changes, such as superficial gastritis, extravasation of red cell, congestion and erosion appeared in the pyloric and fundic regions. It seems that there are divergences of mucosa responces to alcoholic drinks from person to person. 3) The relationship of alcoholic drinks to atrophic gastritis was investigated histopathologically in 104 cases. But it still needs further more cases to come to a conclusion.
With hypotonic duodenograms taken from 263 normal Japanese individuals (male and female) as the subjects of the study author studied the shape of the duodenal loop. The results are briefly summarized as follows. In most of the cases the shape of the duodenal loop reveals a lateral curvature at the descending position of the duodenum (65.0%). As skinfold thickness of the abdominal wall increases, the shape of the duodenal loop tends to present a round arc. The angle of the flexura inferior duodeni formed by pars descendens duodeni and pars horizontalis duodeni is 87.9±18.9 on average. The greater is the skinfold thickness of the abdominal wall, the less is the change in this angle between upright posture and supine posture at the time of taking the duodenograms. Of the duodenal loop, the mid-portion of the duodenal bulb moves most markedly at the time when the upright posture is changed to supine posture. The flexura inferior duodeni and the flexura duodenojejunalis are found to move least in the horizontal direction both at the supine posture and the upright posture. As the fatty thickness of the abdominal wall increases, the duodenal loop tends to enlarge proportionately.
Fine surface structures of gastrointestinal tract of rabbits have been observed under the scanning electron microscope. The specimens were taken from male rabbits at esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small and large intestine and appendix. These specimens were immediately washed with the dimethylpolysiloxane and EDTA and fixed with 2.5% buffer glutaldehyde and dehydrated with acetone. And then they were coated with gold in the thickness of 100 Å and examined under the scanning electron microscope of JSM-U3. The surface of the esophagus consists of squamous cells, of which surface showed the pattern of network. In the stomach the typical pattern of gastric area was observed and micro-granular projection, microvilli, was observed on the individual surface of epithelial cells. In the duodenum and small intestine there were many villi and the epithelial cell surface was closely covered with microvilli. The surface of large intestine and appendix were covered with thick mucus and the pores of Lieverkiihn's gland and the border of the surface epithelial cells were observed in some places. The present observation with various magnifications shows that the magnification of 100 times is suitable for the observations of micro-morphological pattern of the gastrointestinal tract and the magnification over 500 times is requested in order to observed the individual surface epithelial cells.
Since the staining method of the human gastric and blood cells described by Smetana and Busch revealed the drastic changes of the cells during the procedure, the method of fixation was modified as follows: The smears were prefixed in vapor of formalin for 10 min, and postfixed with 10% neutral formalin in saline for 1-3 hr. After the fixation the smears were stained following the procedure described by Smetana and Busch. The modified method showed the satisfactory results to maintain the natural structure of the cells comparing with the original method. With this modified method, it was attempted to detect the morphological localization of acidic nuclear proteins in the cellular structures of resting and dividing cells of human gastric cells. It was revealed that the cytoplasm, the region of nuclear membrane, interchromatinic areas and nucleolus were stained, but chromosomes of the cells in the dividing phase were not stained. Human gastric cells were examined with the modified method. Materials were as follows: The smears of gastric cells were prepared from small specimens obtained by biopsy from 12 subjects with normal mucosa, 12 atrophic gastritis, 12 gastric ulcer, 9 gastric polyp and 17 gastric cancer that were consisted of, 7 well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, 7 carcinoma simplex and 3 adenocarcinoma mucocellulare. Diagnosis of the specimens was histologically comfirmed. And 30 cells from each specimens were examined and results were as follows: 1) Cytoplasm of gastric cancer cells and ulcer rand cells were stained slightly more intensively than that of others. 2) Nucleoplasm of gastric carcinoma cells were characterized by the increased number of granules with small and various size. 3) Nuclear size larger than 20 μ. was found frequently in well-differentiated adenocarcarcinoma cells. 4) The nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio larger than 0.8 was valuable for the diagnosis of the gastric cancer. Thus, the modified method staining especially interchromatinic areas proved to be useful for the clinical cytodiagnosis of gastic cancer.
Therapeutic effects of4-methylumbelliferone was studied by a double blind trial, compared with dehydrocholic acid and pure placebo on 274 patients with biliary disorders. 4-Methylumbelliferone and dehydrocholate caused no change on laboratory findings, but a favorable effect on tenderness in the right hypochondrium, pain at the right shoulder and epigastric discomfort. As comparison with dehydrocholate, 4-methylumbelliferone effect was more marked on tenderness as well as dull pain in the right hypochondrium.